How to Draw a Brain

The brain is one of the most fun parts of the body to draw. You can make it as simple as you like by drawing lots of squiggles and keeping the shape round. If you want more of a challenge, include anatomical parts, such as the brain stem and cerebellum. Once you’ve drawn the cartoon or realistic brain, you can go back and add color or label the parts.

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Sketching an Easy Cartoon Brain
Draw a large bean shape to make the outline for the brain. Use a pencil to sketch a kidney bean shape on your paper. You can make the outline for the brain any size you like. To make the kidney bean shape, draw a circle that has an indent at the bottom.[1]
If you prefer, you could draw an oval instead, but make the middle noticeably wider than the ends.
Make a half-circle from the bottom that curls into the middle of the brain. To highlight a section of the cartoon brain, place your pencil on the bottom line of the outline near the center where it indents. Draw a half-circle that extends from the bottom into the center so it looks like a curlicue.[2]Remember that the brain doesn’t need to look realistic since you’re making a simple cartoon drawing.
Draw 2 to 3 squiggly lines that connect across the brain. The brain is known for looking wrinkly and some of those wrinkles extend across the entire brain. Make a few wiggly lines that move from the outline to the half-circle you just drew or have them touch the opposite side of the brain.[3]
Sketch lots of small squiggles that don’t connect. These will look like wrinkles once you’ve made them over the entire brain. There’s no need to make them all connect to each other, so make your squiggles different sizes and lengths.[4]Your lines can extend in from the outline of the brain or you can make them disconnected from the outline.
Make the outline thicker to add texture to the brain. Go back and draw over some of the lines you made for the outline to make them bolder and curvy. You can also draw over some of the squiggles so they stand out.[5]You can skip this step if you want your cartoon brain to look more 2-dimensional.[Edit]Drawing a Realistic Brain
Draw a horizontal oval that juts out along the bottom line. Lightly sketch an oval that’s as large as you want the brain to be. Curve the top of the oval in the middle to make the rounded part of the brain. When you’re drawing the bottom line, make it bump out near the middle. The bump should be about 1/3 the size of the brain’s length.[6]Keep your pencil marks light so you can erase mistakes or go over them with a pen.
Sketch a narrow curve above the top line of the brain. This will give your drawing a sense of dimension. Place your pencil on one end of the oval and draw a line that curves over the top line. It should be about above the original outline at its widest point.[7]If you don’t want to give the brain dimension, you can skip this step.
Make a curve that looks like a C on the bottom bump. Now that you’ve drawn the basic outline for the brain, you’ll start to draw lines that separate the different segments of the brain. Locate the bump you made on the bottom line and draw the base of a C shape so it fits into the bump. Extend the top of the C towards the middle of the brain.[8]The area of the bump will be the temporal lobe.
Trace a curved line from the outline to the middle of the line you just made. To make another segment of the brain, lightly draw a line from the original top of the brain. Make it curve slightly so it connects to the middle of the line you just drew.[9]This segment that you blocked off will be the frontal lobe.
Draw 2 to 3 long curved lines across each segment of the brain. Use a light touch to make several lines for each part. Try to mimic the shape of the individual segment. For example, the frontal lobe lines should make an arc up toward the line you drew through the brain while the lines near the back and bottom of the brain should curve down toward the base.[10]You’ll use these faint lines as guidelines so it’s easier to make the brain’s wrinkles.
Add half-moon shapes along the lines to make them look wrinkled. Instead of leaving the smooth lines, make half-moon curves along the lines. The curves can go in different directions so the brain looks bumpy. Do this for each line to give the brain its distinctive texture.[11]Remember to go back along the sliver that you drew on top of the brain. Make small curves along this to make the brain appear bumpy.
Draw a stem and horizontal half-circle at the bottom center of the brain. To make the brain stem (medulla oblongata), sketch a narrow tube that extends from the bottom of the brain at the center. You can make it go down as far as you like. Then, draw a half-circle directly to the right of the stem. Make the half-circle go almost to that end of the brain.[12]To make the cerebellum more detailed, you can fill it with thin horizontal lines. Make the lines a little wavy so they look realistic.
Use crayons, markers, or colored pencils to add color to your drawing. You can use a single color and shade in the brain to add depth or use several colors to highlight different segments of the brain.
For example, use 5 or 6 colors if you’ll be labeling the parts of the brain. The different colors can help the segments stand out.
Label the parts of the brain if you want to use it as an anatomy reference. If you’re studying parts of the brain for a class, drawing the brain and labeling it is good practice. Refer to your textbook to label the:
Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe
Medulla oblongata
Cerebellum[Edit]Video
[Edit]Tips
If you’re struggling to draw a brain, start with a really basic oval shape and draw squiggles or wrinkles all over it. As you become more confident, you can add more details.[Edit]Things You’ll Need
Pencils or pens
Eraser
Paper
Colored pencils or markers, optional[Edit]Related wikiHows
Draw Ears
Draw a Nose
Draw Realistic Hands[Edit]References
[Edit]Quick Summary↑ https://drawinghub.com/tut/drawing-a-brain-for-kids-23196

↑ https://youtu.be/FP2ibNRrA10?t=37

↑ https://youtu.be/FP2ibNRrA10?t=49

↑ https://drawinghub.com/tut/drawing-a-brain-for-kids-23196

↑ https://youtu.be/FP2ibNRrA10?t=130

↑ https://youtu.be/3Abwu2dnLN4?t=43

↑ https://youtu.be/3Abwu2dnLN4?t=57

↑ https://youtu.be/3Abwu2dnLN4?t=62

↑ https://youtu.be/3Abwu2dnLN4?t=65

↑ https://youtu.be/3Abwu2dnLN4?t=93

↑ https://youtu.be/3Abwu2dnLN4?t=284

↑ https://howtodrawa.net/brain/

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Today in History for 31st October 2019

Historical Events

1649 – John Wallis, newly appointed Savilian Professorof Geometry at Oxford University, gives his Inaugural lecture
1864 – Nevada admitted as 36th state of the Union
1905 – Great revolutionary demonstration for amnesty in St Petersburg
1959 – Lee Harvey Oswald announces in Moscow he will never return to USA
1968 – US President Lyndon B. Johnson orders a halt to all bombing of North Vietnam
1993 – 25 people killed during Ghana-Ivory Coast soccer match

More Historical Events »

Famous Birthdays

1902 – Eduard Franz, American actor (Zorro), born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (d. 1983)
1920 – Fritz Walter, German footballer, born in Kaiserslautern, Germany (d. 2002)
1930 – Ray Crane, English trumpeter, born in Skegness, Lincolnshire (d. 1994)
1947 – Russ Ballard, English rocker (Argent), born in Waltham Cross, Hertfordshire, England
1960 – Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran, born in Tehran, Iran
1966 – Koji Kanemoto, Japanese wrestler (NJPW/AAA/UWA, Tiger Mask, King Lee), born in Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan

More Famous Birthdays »

Famous Deaths

1556 – John Sleidanus, German humanist/historian (Commentary), dies at 50
1664 – Willem Frederik of Nassau-Dietz, viceroy of Friesland, dies at 51
1969 – Hugo Pfister, Swiss composer, dies at 55
1987 – Joseph Campbell, mythologist (Mythic Image), dies at 83
1995 – Henry A Walter Richard Percy, 11th Duke of Northumberland, dies at 42
1995 – Alan Bush, English composer pianist and teacher, dies at 94

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How to Fix a Shoe Heel

Over time, the heels of your shoes will wear down from wearing and walking in them and you may need to replace them. If you have a high heel, then all you need is to put in a new tip before you can walk in them again. If the heel’s worn on a dress shoe, then you need to replace it in order to fix it. Your heels may also get dirty, scuffed, or torn while you wear them, but you can easily clean and make repairs on them.

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Fixing a High Heel Tip
Get a set of replacement heel tips that match your heel. Replacement heel tips are small rubber pieces with metal dowels attached to them so you can put them in your shoe. You can either measure the height and width of your existing heel tip or buy a multipack that has different sizes in it. Make sure the color of the heel tip matches the one on your shoe or else it will clash.[1]
You can buy replacement heel tips from a shoe store or online.
Pull out the tip of the heel with a pair of needlenose pliers. Grab the rubber end on the bottom of your high heel with a pair of needlenose pliers and slowly pull it straight out. You may have to rotate or shimmy the tip out of place since it will have a tight fit. Once you remove the tip from the shoe, you can throw it away.[2]
If the rubber on the tip is completely worn away, then grab the metal dowel instead.
Don’t grab above the rubber tip since you could damage the actual heel of your shoe.
Push the new tip into the hole on the heel. Take one of the replacement heel tips and feed the end with the metal dowel into the hole on the bottom of the heel. Try to line up the shape of the tip and heel so it’s easier to make adjustments later on. Push the new tip in as far as you can by hand.[3]
Set the shoe on a sturdy surface so you can push the tip in further.
Be careful not to apply too much force to your shoe heel since you could cause it to break off.
Tap the new heel tip into place with a hammer. Hold the shoe sturdy on a stable surface with your nondominant hand. Gently tap the bottom of the heel tip with a hammer to push it into the heel further. Continue tapping the heel tip slowly into the heel until the edges are flush with one another.[4]
Don’t hit the hammer too hard since you could break the heel or bend the heel tip.
Turn the tip so it lines up with the rest of the heel. Grip the sides of the heel tip with your needlenose pliers and slowly turn the heel tip away. Keep rotating the heel tip in the heel until the curves on the back of the heel line up. Once the heel tip is aligned with the heel, you’re ready to wear your shoes again.[5][Edit]Replacing the Heels on Dress Shoes
Buy a replacement heel for the shoe you’re repairing. You can usually find replacement heels online or at a shoe store. Compare the width, length, and thickness of the replacement heel to the one on your shoes to make sure they are the right fit. Make sure the bottom grip on the heel has the amount of traction you need so you don’t slip later on.[6]
Replacement heels usually cost around $25 USD for a pair.
If you can’t find a replacement heel that matches the size of your shoe exactly, then get the next largest one so you can trim off the excess.
Pull the heel off of the shoe with a pair of pliers. Grip the rubber on the edge of your heel and slowly pull it backward. Hold the toe of the shoe down with your nondominant hand to get better leverage. Continue pulling the rubber part of the heel up until it comes off completely.[7]
Many times, you only need to remove the rubber piece on the heel, also known as the top lifts. If the heel platform is damaged, then you also need to remove it the same way.
Use a belt sander to remove excess glue and flatten the bottom of the shoe. Put on safety glasses before using the belt sander so you don’t get any dust in your eyes. Turn on the sander and carefully hold the bottom of the shoe by the heel against the belt. Make sure the shoe bottom is flat against the sander so it smooths out a level surface for the new heel. Check the bottom of the shoe every few seconds to see if it’s flat.[8]
You can also use 120-grit sandpaper, but it will be more difficult to get the heel perfectly level.
Don’t touch the belt sander while it’s still running since it will cause serious injury.
Apply contact glue to the shoe bottom and new heel and let it dry for 15 minutes. Contact glue adheres to itself and makes a firm connection between the pieces. Use the glue applicator to spread a thin layer of glue on the back of the replacement heel and the bottom of your shoe. Leave the glue to dry for at least 10-15 minutes so it gets tacky and adheres better.[9]
You can buy contact glue from your local hardware or craft store.
Don’t push the heel onto the bottom of the shoe yet since the glue needs to set beforehand.
Work in a well-ventilated area since contact glue can create fumes that may cause irritation.
Push the heel onto the bottom of the shoe. After the glue dries for 10-15 minutes, line up the heel as best as you can with the bottom of the shoe. When you have the heel lined up, push it down onto the shoe so it makes a firm connection. Apply continuous pressure to the heel for 30-60 seconds so the heel and shoe stay in place. The glue will dry immediately so you can keep working on your shoe.[10]
The heel will stick to the bottom of the shoe as soon as the contact glue touches, so make sure it’s lined up perfectly before pressing down.
Trim the heel around the bottom of the shoe if it doesn’t lie flush. Hold the blade of a utility knife against the side of your shoe next to the new heel. If the heel overhangs the side of the shoe, guide the blade through the rubber around the curves of the heel. Trim as close as you can to the side of your shoe to ensure that the heel doesn’t hang out the side.[11]
Your knife can easily slip while trimming the heel, so work slowly and carefully so you don’t yourself.
Secure the heel in place with cobbler nails. Cobbler nails are only long, but they help hold your heel in place so it doesn’t come off. Place a nail it each of the front corners of the heel and gently tap them into the bottom of the shoe. Then evenly space 3-5 more nails around the back curve of the heel to help secure it in place.[12]
You can buy cobbler nails at a hardware or shoe store.
You don’t have to nail down top lifts if you don’t want to, but it can make them more secure.[Edit]Cleaning and Repairing the Material
Clean scuffs off of leather with toothpaste. Apply a pea-sized shape of any non-gel toothpaste onto the corner of a cleaning rag. Rub the toothpaste in circular motions on the sides of the heel that have scuffs on them. If you still notice the scuffs after your first application, then use another pea-sized bead of toothpaste and repeat the process again. Continue working until you can’t see the scuff marks anymore.[13]
You may also use petroleum jelly in place of toothpaste if you want.
Wipe rubber heels with nail polish remover to remove marks. Wet the corner of a cleaning rag with nail polish remover, and wring out any excess. Rub the heels of your shoes in a circular motion to help remove any scuff marks from the sides. If the marks don’t come out at first, wet the rag again and continue wiping until they’re clean.[14]
Avoid using an abrasive rag while you’re cleaning or else you may scratch and damage the rubber.
Rub walnuts on a wooden heel to remove scuffs and scratches. Use unshelled walnuts since they’re easier to break apart and use on your shoes. Hold the walnut against the wood on your heel and apply light pressure while you rub back and forth. The oil from the nuts will help lift and remove any scuff marks and make the shoe appear clean and shiny. Continue rubbing walnuts into the heels until you don’t notice any more marks.[15]
Do not eat the walnuts you use to clean your shoes.
Use liquid leather to fill in holes on a leather heel. Liquid leather matches the texture and look of real leather so you can hide tears or holes. Use a small applicator, such as a cotton swab or popsicle stick, to scoop out a small bead of liquid leather and spread it over the damaged area on your heel. Press the textured sheet provided with the liquid leather over the area and let it dry for 24 hours. Slowly peel the sheet off the liquid leather once it’s dry so you can wear your shoes again.[16]
You can buy liquid leather from a shoe or craft store.
Be sure to use liquid leather that matches the color of your heel so it doesn’t clash with the rest of your shoe.[Edit]Tips
If your heel is loose, you may be able to use super glue to secure it back in place for a short time, though it will be weaker and more likely to break again.
If you don’t feel comfortable working on your own shoes, then take them to a professional cobbler so they can repair them for you.
You can also buy high heel tips that slide onto the ends of your heels if you need to repair them quickly.[Edit]Warnings
Always wear safety glasses when using a belt sander.
Never touch the belt on a belt sander while it’s moving since it can cause serious injury.[Edit]Things You’ll Need
[Edit]Fixing a High Heel Tip
Replacement high heel tips
Needlenose pliers
Hammer[Edit]Replacing the Heels on Dress Shoes
Replacement heel
Pliers
Belt sander
Contact glue
Utility knife
Cobbler nails
Hammer[Edit]Cleaning and Repairing the Heel
Walnuts
Toothpaste
Cleaning rag
Nail polish remover
Liquid leather[Edit]References↑ https://youtu.be/IVg0VlhbdjE?t=206

↑ https://youtu.be/IVg0VlhbdjE?t=130

↑ https://youtu.be/zOIklQgJUbE?t=101

↑ https://youtu.be/zOIklQgJUbE?t=115

↑ https://youtu.be/IVg0VlhbdjE?t=318

↑ https://youtu.be/ODsApyQ5BNo?t=101

↑ https://youtu.be/6jSg4wMtOu0?t=126

↑ https://youtu.be/6jSg4wMtOu0?t=180

↑ https://youtu.be/ODsApyQ5BNo?t=883

↑ https://youtu.be/ODsApyQ5BNo?t=1093

↑ https://youtu.be/ODsApyQ5BNo?t=1555

↑ https://youtu.be/_VYMNcEdQj0?t=57

↑ https://www.hermoney.com/enjoy/fashion/quick-fixes-fashion-emergencies/

↑ https://youtu.be/yiM-QxIOZAY?t=75

↑ https://youtu.be/3C9On4Tnlvk?t=32

↑ https://www.lollipuff.com/blog/39/fixing-a-worn-heel-with-a-leather-repair-kit

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How to Roast Pumpkin Seeds

Instead of throwing out the pumpkin seeds after a pumpkin carving session, try roasting them as a delicious snack instead! Rinse the seeds under cold running water before drying them and baking them in the oven until they’re golden brown. You can add any sort of seasonings you desire, turning your pumpkin seeds into a spicy, sweet, or simply flavorful treat.

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Removing the Seeds from the Pumpkin
Remove the top of the pumpkin to access the seeds. If you haven’t already done so, use a sharp cutting knife to cut a circle around the pumpkin’s stem. Make sure the lid is wide enough for your hand to fit through comfortably. Remove the lid once you’re done cutting it.[1]
Use a large spoon to scoop the seeds from the pumpkin. The bigger the spoon, the more seeds you’ll be able to remove at once. Scrape the sides of the pumpkin to loosen the seeds and pulp, taking time to scoop out as many seeds as possible.[2]You can also use your hands or an object from a pumpkin carving kit.
Place all of the seeds and pulp in a large bowl. As you’re scooping out the seeds, place the seeds and pulp in a bowl big enough to hold everything. Remove large pieces of pulp from the seeds as you’re placing them in the bowl, but don’t worry about separating every single string.[3]
If you’re removing the seeds from a smaller pumpkin, you may not need as large of a bowl.[Edit]Washing and Drying the Seeds
Set the seeds in a colander and rinse them under cold water. This will help loosen the pulp and strings from the seeds, making it easier to clean them. Hold the colander full of seeds under the running water, using your hands to move the seeds around gently.[4]
Pull the seeds out of the colander and place them on a towel. Once the seeds are mostly clean, take them out of the colander and set them on a clean kitchen towel. If there are any big strings still attached to the seeds, pull these off if possible.[5]
You can also place the seeds on paper towels, though they may stick.
Pat the seeds dry using the kitchen towel. Spread the seeds out on the towel and gently blot the seeds to ensure they’re as dry as possible. Place the seeds in a bowl once they’re dry.[6]Instead of blotting the seeds, you can also shake them in the colander to remove excess water.
If the seeds are still damp when they go in the oven, they won’t roast well due to the moisture.[Edit]Adding Seasonings
Toss the seeds with oil or butter. Once the clean, dry seeds are in a bowl, pour cooking oil or melted butter into the bowl so that the seeds are lightly covered. Use a large spoon to mix the seeds around with the oil or butter so that each seed is covered evenly.[7]Use canola oil, olive oil, or vegetable oil.
How much oil or butter you use will depend on how many pumpkin seeds you’re roasting, but it’s best to start with a small amount—you can always add more.
Add your desired seasonings. These could be seasonings such as Worcestershire sauce, garlic powder, paprika, salt, pepper—whichever seasonings are your favorite. Sprinkle the desired amount of seasoning into the bowl of pumpkin seeds.[8]Experiment with the type and amount of seasonings, sprinkling in small amounts before adding more.
For a simple yet tasty flavor, just add salt and pepper to your pumpkin seeds.
Consider adding seasonings like chili powder, Cajun seasoning, or crab seasoning for a stronger flavor.
Season with sugar, cinnamon, and nutmeg for a sweet snack.
Stir the pumpkin seed mixture thoroughly using a large spoon. Stir gently, making sure the pumpkin seeds are evenly coated with oil or butter and your desired seasonings. If you notice that many seeds don’t have seasoning on them, feel free to sprinkle a little bit more into the mixture.[9][Edit]Baking the Seeds
Preheat the oven to and prepare a sheet pan. Lining your baking sheet with parchment paper will prevent the seeds from sticking the best, though you can also use aluminum foil. Once the oven is preheated, you’re ready to roast your seeds.[10]
Spread the seeds out evenly on the baking sheet. Pour the seasoned pumpkin seeds onto the lined baking sheet, using a spoon to spread them out. Try to make sure they aren’t clumped together and are laying flat so they roast evenly.[11]
If your pumpkin seeds end up layered on top of one another, try baking them in two smaller batches to promote even roasting.
Bake the seeds for 20-30 minutes, stirring them occasionally. Remove the baking sheet from the oven every 10 minutes and move the seeds around using a wooden spoon or other kitchen utensil—this will help ensure each seed roasts evenly. Once the seeds look browned, they’re done![12]
Eat the seeds warm or let them cool to room temperature. Once the seeds have been removed and the oven is turned off, use a spatula to scoop the seeds into a bowl or other serving dish. You can eat them while they’re still warm from the oven, or let them sit for a few minutes until they’re cool.[13]
Store the seeds in an airtight container for roughly 1 week. If you want to save your roasted pumpkin seeds, put them in an airtight container such as a mason jar, plastic bag, or piece of tupperware. The seeds will stay fresh for a week or so at room temperature, or you can place them in the freezer for up to a month.[14]
If placing the seeds in the freezer, they should be in an airtight container as well.
Write the date on the container so you remember when the seeds were roasted.[Edit]Things You’ll Need
Cutting knife
Large spoon
Large bowl
Colander
Towel
Oil or butter
Seasonings
Sheet pan
Parchment paper or aluminum foil
Airtight container (optional)[Edit]Video
This video shows you a different way to roast pumpkin seeds.

[Edit]Tips
Place newspaper over your table surfaces for easier cleanup.
Add your seasonings after roasting the seeds, if desired.
The pumpkin seeds can also be added to a salad or soup.
Try using a toaster oven for smaller amounts of pumpkin seeds.[Edit]Related wikiHows
Dry Pumpkin Seeds
Roast a Pumpkin
Carve a Pumpkin
Make Pumpkin Bread
Make Pumpkin Pie Straight from the Pumpkin
Roast Chestnuts
Eat Pumpkin Seeds
Cook With a Convection Toaster Oven[Edit]References
[Edit]Quick Summary↑ https://www.tasteofhome.com/article/roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.tasteofhome.com/article/roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.tasteofhome.com/article/roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.jessicagavin.com/how-to-roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.101cookbooks.com/toasted-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.101cookbooks.com/toasted-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.tasteofhome.com/article/roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.jessicagavin.com/how-to-roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.tasteofhome.com/article/roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.jessicagavin.com/how-to-roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.tasteofhome.com/article/roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.jessicagavin.com/how-to-roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://www.tasteofhome.com/article/roast-pumpkin-seeds/

↑ https://minimalistbaker.com/how-to-roast-pumpkin-seeds/

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Today in History for 30th October 2019

Historical Events

1943 – Soviet forces under Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin commenced offensive on the 4th Ukranian Front
1944 – Scots Highlanders liberate Waalwijk
1967 – Ferdinand Bracke bicycles world record time (48,093 km)
1990 – Britain and France complete the “Chunnel” under the English Channel
1993 – Toronto Maple Leafs lose 1st game of season after going 10-0-0
2016 – Canada and the EU sign free trade deal after opposition by Belgium

More Historical Events »

Famous Birthdays

1963 – Todd Sand, pairs skaters (Olympics 1994), born in Burbank, California
1964 – Howard Lederer, American poker player
1970 – Ekaterini Voggoli, Greek discus thrower
1983 – Trent Edwards, American Football Player
1984 – Eva Pigford, American model
1988 – Janel Parrish, American actress

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Famous Deaths

1680 – Antoinette Bourignon, Flemish mystic (b. 1616)
1936 – Teddy Wynyard, cricketer (three Tests for England 1896-1906), dies
1958 – Rose Macaulay, English writer (The Towers of Trebizond), dies at 77
1968 – Conrad Richter, American writer (Light in the Forest), dies at 78
1993 – Hernan Heleno Castro, El Salvadorian guerilla leader, murdered
2007 – Linda Stein, Ramones manager and real estate broker (b. 1945)

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