How to Foundation Single Crochet

Foundation single crochet (FSC) is a stitch that combines the chain row and the first single crochet row. Using FSC instead of chaining and single crocheting separately can simplify the beginning of a crochet project. The stitch is easy to learn as well. You will need to start the stitch using a sequence of basic crochet techniques, and then work the rest of the row using a different sequence. Try using FSC to start your next crochet project and save yourself a little time.

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Crocheting the First Stitch
Make a slipknot. Before you can start your foundation single crochet row, you will need to make a slipknot. To make a slipknot, wrap your yarn around your finger twice, and then pull one loop through the other to make a loop with a knot at the end of it. Slide the slipknot onto your hook, and tug the yarn to secure it.[1]
Chain two. Next, you need to chain two stitches. To do this, loop the yarn over the hook in front of your slipknot. Then, pull the new yarn through the slipknot to make one chain. Then, yarn over and pull it through again to make the second chain.[2]
Insert hook into the first chain and yarn over. Identify the first chain you made, and then insert the hook into this chain. Then, loop the yarn over the hook and pull it through the chain. At this point, you should have two loops on your hook.[3]
Loop the yarn over and pull through. Next, loop the yarn over the hook and pull it through the first loop on the hook. This will make a chain of one and you should still have two loops on your hook.[4]
Loop the yarn over and pull through both loops. To complete the stitch, yarn over your hook again and pull the yarn through both of the loops on the hook. Now, you should only have one loop on the hook and you are ready to continue the row.[5]
Mark your first stitch with a stitch marker. Some people find it helpful to mark the first stitch in the row with a stitch marker. You may want to do this at least the first few times that you use the foundation single crochet stitch. Place the stitch marker through your first single crochet stitch.[6][Edit]Continuing the Foundation Row
Insert your hook into the stitch you just made. To continue the row, you will be following a shorter sequence than you used to create the first row. Start by inserting your hook into the stitch you just made. If you placed a stitch marker here, then it should be easy to locate.[7]
Loop the yarn over and pull through the stitch. Next, loop the yarn over your hook and pull it through the stitch. Now, you should have two loops on your hook.[8]
Yarn over again and pull through one loop. Loop the yarn over the hook again and then pull it through the first loop on your hook to make a chain. You should still have two loops on your hook at this point.[9]
Do one more yarn over and pull through both loops. To complete the stitch, loop the yarn over the hook again and then pull it through both of the loops on your hook. This will leave you with one loop on your hook again and you will be ready to start the sequence over.[10]
Repeat the sequence to the end of the row. Continue to repeat the sequence for this stitch until you have the desired number of stitches in your row. Then, you can continue your project.[11][Edit]Identifying Advantages of the FSC Stitch
Check the gauge of your yarn. You cannot get an accurate gauge of your yarn by crocheting a chain. However, using the FSC stitch is a good way to check the gauge of your yarn quickly.[12] You can make a 4” row of FSC stitches and then count them to determine the gauge of your yarn and hook. This could be a huge time saver if you are trying to determine your gauge for a project.
Crochet into the top and bottom of the row. Another great advantage of the FSC stitch is that the top and bottom rows look the same. This means that you can work into the top and bottom rows and get the same results.[13] Therefore, the FSC stitch may be a good option if you want to work on both sides of your foundation row.
Avoid having to redo your first row. It is common to miscount the links in your chain when you are crocheting a large piece, and this can be a time consuming mistake. You may end up having to start over from scratch if you don’t notice the error until working on the first row of your project. By using the FSC stitch, you can count the stitches more easily as you go and you will be less likely to make a mistake with the number of stitches.[14]
Get a neater look. The FSC stitch produces a neater looking first row than you might get by making a chain and then crocheting into it. If you have noticed that your projects tend to look a little sloppy when you start them with a chain, then try switching to the FSC stitch for your next project. This may give you better results once you master the stitch.[15][Edit]Things You’ll Need
Yarn
Crochet hook appropriate for the type of yarn you are using. Check the yarn label if you are not sure what size to use.
Stitch markers[Edit]References
[Edit]Quick Summary↑ https://www.craftsy.com/blog/2015/05/foundation-single-crochet-how-to/

↑ https://www.craftsy.com/blog/2015/05/foundation-single-crochet-how-to/

↑ https://www.craftsy.com/blog/2015/05/foundation-single-crochet-how-to/

↑ https://www.craftsy.com/blog/2015/05/foundation-single-crochet-how-to/

↑ https://www.craftsy.com/blog/2015/05/foundation-single-crochet-how-to/

↑ https://www.purlsoho.com/create/foundation-single-crochet-fsc/

↑ http://newstitchaday.com/fsc-foundation-single-crochet/

↑ http://newstitchaday.com/fsc-foundation-single-crochet/

↑ http://newstitchaday.com/fsc-foundation-single-crochet/

↑ http://newstitchaday.com/fsc-foundation-single-crochet/

↑ http://newstitchaday.com/fsc-foundation-single-crochet/

↑ http://www.futuregirl.com/craft_blog/2009/3/tutorial-foundation-single-crochet.aspx

↑ http://www.futuregirl.com/craft_blog/2009/3/tutorial-foundation-single-crochet.aspx

↑ http://www.futuregirl.com/craft_blog/2009/3/tutorial-foundation-single-crochet.aspx

↑ http://www.futuregirl.com/craft_blog/2009/3/tutorial-foundation-single-crochet.aspx

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Today in History for 2nd November 2019

Historical Events

1936 – At 3pm the BBC begins the world’s first regular high-definition TV broadcast service from specially constructed studios at Alexandra Palace, North London
1966 – The Cuban Adjustment Act comes into force, allowing 123,000 Cubans opportunity to apply for permanent residence in the US
1972 – USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1991 – Nevada makes biggest comeback in NCAA football history, overcoming a 35 point 3rd quarter deficit to rally and beat Weber State, 55-49
2002 – 14th College Football Holy War: Boston College beats Notre Dame 14-7 in South Bend
2012 – Breeders’ Cup Horse Racing, Santa Anita Racetrack; Day 1 winners: Hightail, Calidoscopio, Flotilla, Beholder, Zagora, Royal Delta

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Famous Birthdays

1837 – Émile Bayard, French artist and illustrator, born in La Ferté-sous-Jouarre, Seine-et-Marne, France (d. (1891)
1843 – Caryl Florio [William James Robjohn], English-American composer, born in Tavistock, Devon, England (d. 1920)
1924 – David Bauer, Canadian Hockey Hall of Fame player and builder (priest, school coach; National Team manager), born in Kitchener, Ontario (d. 1988)
1948 – Rich Gooch, American rock bassist (Quarterflash)
1961 – K.D. Lang [Kathy Dawn], Canadian country singer, born in Consort, Alberta
1962 – David Brock, American political commentator (Media Matters for America), born in Washington, D.C.

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Famous Deaths

1863 – Theodore Judah, American railroad engineer (b. 1826)
1887 – Swedish Nightingale [Jenny Lind], Swedish soprano, dies at 67
1905 – Albert von Kölliker, Swiss anatomist and histologist (one of the first to interpret tissue structure in terms of cellular elements), dies at 88
1977 – Hans Erich Nossak, German writer, dies at 76
1995 – Bill Blair, American auto racer (NASCAR pioneer; 54 top-10 finishes), dies at 84
2013 – Walt Bellamy, American Basketball Hall of Fame center (NBA All-Star 1962–65; NBA Rookie of the Year 1962; Olympic gold 1960), dies at 74

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How to Be a Healthy Vegan

Being healthy as a vegan can be hard at the beginning, but when done right, a vegan diet can be just as healthy as a non-vegan one. You can get almost every nutrient you need from a plant-based vegan diet. However, you have to know where you can find your essential nutrients. With some planning and creativity, you can create a diet that helps you feel healthier than ever.

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Having a Well-Rounded Diet
Get your vitamin B12. B12 promotes healthy functioning of the brain and nervous system, and is an essential vitamin for any healthy person. The recommended daily intake for adults is 2.4 micrograms. However, B12 only naturally occurs in animal foods. Since B12 is not found in plant-based foods, vegans need to find ways to supplement their diet with foods that have been fortified with B12. Look for the following:
Breakfast cereals or oatmeal that have been fortified with vitamin B12. Check the labeling to make sure eating the cereal will give you the recommended daily intake.
Soy milk, Rice milk and some other plant milks is also often fortified with B12.
B12 supplements are popular among vegans. Since B12 is the only vitamin you can’t get by eating plants, it might be worth adding this supplement to your daily routine.
Seek out foods rich in iron. This mineral aids in healthy oxygen circulation, and it’s most commonly found in red meat and fish. However, iron also occurs naturally in a number of different foods. When you eat iron-rich foods, eat vitamin C at the same time; it helps the body absorb iron more effectively. It is recommended that adults get 8 mg of iron per day.[1] Here’s where to find it:
Dried fruits
Legumes
Seeds
Leafy green vegetables
Whole grains
Eat protein-hearty foods. Protein contributes to the growth of muscle, hair, nails, and other very important systems in the body. Adults need 46 to 56 grams per day to stay healthy. There are plenty of plant-based protein sources, and these should make up a significant portion of your diet as a vegan. Here’s what to eat:
Black beans, kidney beans, chickpeas, pinto beans, lima beans, etc.
Whole grains
Pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, and other seeds
All nuts
Soy products
Eat plenty of calcium. It builds strong bones and teeth, and this essential mineral is most often associated with cow’s milk. However, you can get the calcium you need (1,000 mg daily, for adults[2]) by eating the following fruits and vegetables:
Dark, leafy greens like kale and collards
Almonds
Fortified cereals, soy milk, or bread
Citrus fruits like oranges and lemons
Incorporate foods with omega-3 fatty acids. This healthy type of fat is essential for a range of functions in the body, both internal and external. It’s also beneficial for keeping your mood stable and your mind healthy. Adults need 12 to 17 grams per day, and you can get them from the following plant sources:
Flaxseed
Walnuts
Canola oil
Soy
Eat salt and seaweed for the iodine. This trace element helps keep the thyroid functioning properly, and you need 150 mcg per day to stay in good health. It’s commonly found in seafood, but vegans can get the iodine they need by eating sea salt and seaweed.
Eat foods with zinc. This mineral is involved in healthy cell production, and some studies connect it to helping treat the common cold. Adults need 8 to 11mg daily. Zinc naturally occurs in the following foods:
Peanuts
Legumes
Cashews
Almonds[Edit]Planning Your Meals
Talk with a nutritionist. If you’re making a serious switch to a vegan diet, it’s a good idea to get advice from a professional. He or she will be able to tell you how to best meet your unique needs as well as giving you resources to help you choose the right foods.
Kids, women who are pregnant, and elderly people all have slightly different nutritional needs than the average adult, so it’s especially important for people in these groups to talk to a nutritionist.
Eat a balance of protein, carbohydrates and fats. Meat-eaters have it a little easier: they choose a meat, a vegetable and a starch, and that’s that. As a vegan it’s important to make sure your meals are balanced according to the new food pyramid issued by the US Department of Agriculture. Aim to get the following each day:[3]
6 oz. grains (half of these should be whole grains, like brown rice, quinoa, or whole wheat)
2.5 cups vegetables (eat a variety, not just one or two types)
2 cups fruit (choose whole, fresh fruit instead of juice whenever possible)
5.5 oz. beans and other protein sources
Healthy fats (olive oil, grapeseed oil, nut oils etc)
Fill up on healthy food. Some Vegans feel hungry after eating the same amount of food as meat-eaters. Meat and dairy are very filling, and vegans need to eat larger portions of vegetables, legumes, and fats to feel satisfied. As long as you’re filling up on healthy food, it’s fine to eat more than one helping and stop your stomach from rumbling. Pears are very filling. Try a pear if you are a hungry Vegan.
To make vegetables more filling, add olive oil, nuts, dried fruit, seeds, and other goodies. Eating just plain vegetables won’t feel as satisfying.
Use plenty of spices to make your food taste just as rich and nuanced as any meat-eater’s meal.
Avoid eating processed “vegan” foods. Did you know oreos are vegan? Hundreds of snack foods and candies you might normally pass up will look extra tasty when you’re feeling hungry, but try to resist the urge to eat loads of sugar and processed carbohydrates. These foods are devoid of nutrition; they might fill you up temporarily, but they won’t give you the nutrients you need to stay healthy.
Processed soy products aren’t necessarily healthy for you, even if they’re made with tofu. It’s fine to have “tofurkey,” seitan, and other soy products every once in a while, but these should not be staples in your diet. The same goes for faux dairy products like soy cheese and ice cream.
Have plenty of healthy snacks on hand. Some Vegans like to graze, since they tend to get hungry more often than meat-eaters. Have plenty of healthy snacks and smaller meals on hand so you don’t get to the point where you’re ravenous (which will make you more likely to wolf down a whole bag of gummy worms or three bowls of cereal with almond milk). Here are some great vegan snacks that you can gobble down without guilt:
Nuts of any kind. Try roasting your favorite nuts in the oven with olive oil and spices. If you have a sweet tooth, use maple syrup and cinnamon.
Whole grain crackers topped with hummus.
Carrot sticks and other cut vegetables with hummus.
Bean and rice cakes with salsa.
Baked sweet potatoes topped with coconut oil and sea salt.
Dark chocolate and peanut butter.
Banana ice cream (blend a banana and run it through your ice cream machine; you will be amazed by how delicious it turns out).
Get a vegan cookbook and learn how to cook tasty meals. As a vegan, you’re going to have to fend for yourself more often than not. Unless you live in a town with lots of great options for vegans (lucky you!) you’ll probably have to do a lot of your own cooking to ensure your meals are balanced and healthy. There are loads of vegan cookbooks available, so pick one up and start bookmarking dishes to try out.
Look for vegan blogs, too. You’ll find recipes as well as hosts of commenters who will offer more suggestions.
Health food stores and vegan/vegetarian restaurants are also great spots for inspiration.[Edit]Learning Vegan Hacks for Eating Out
Find the vegan-friendly spots where you live. Maybe you don’t have a vegan-dedicated restaurant in your town, but there are probably some places with menu items that are vegan. Before you go out, have a few places in mind where you know you’ll be able to get a healthy meal and enjoy yourself.
Steakhouses, barbecue joints and fried chicken spots are probably out. If your friends insist on going to one, you could always order a heap of fries and ketchup and call it a day.
Many restaurants that offer cuisines from outside the US have vegan menu items. Try checking some menus out online, then up the restaurants beforehand to double check that dishes are vegan.
Check out the side dishes. If you’re seated at a restaurant and weren’t able to vet the place beforehand, side dishes are often the best bet. Unless you’re at a place where everything on the menu is made with bacon or ham drippings, you’ll probably find some tasty items that don’t have any animal products.
If you decide to order vegetables, be sure to request that they be cooked in oil instead of butter.
Look for tasty beans, peas, or other legumes and rice. These items aren’t often cooked with animal products.
Order salads with all the (vegan) trimmings. If you’re at a restaurant with tasty salads, you’re in luck. See if you can customize a salad to include extra vegetables, beans, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, and any other toppings they have that are vegan. Order it with oil and lemon juice or vinegar, since most dressings on offer probably contain an animal product or two.
See if they can whip something up for you. You might feel shy asking for favors at first, but as a vegan it definitely helps to speak up. You deserve to be able to eat a healthy, delicious meal, and most restaurant owners strive to be accommodating.
Explain that you don’t eat meat, milk or eggs, and ask if there’s something they can prepare for you without any animal products.
For example, they could give you plain pasta with garlic, olive oil and veggies, beans with veggies, rice and beans, and so on.
Eat before you go to parties. Even if the host of a party knows you’re vegan, he or she might try to serve you something with eggs, milk or even fish, not quite understanding that vegans don’t eat any animal products. Hopefully your well-meaning host will have something on hand you can eat, but just in case, you should eat before you go.[Edit]Tips
Introduce a variety of fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds and oils to your diet.
Learn to cook some easy vegan meals you enjoy, so that you always have a couple on hand.
Know that this is a process of learning and it is okay to do mistakes sometimes.
Find inspiration online.
Be careful to get too involved in discussions online on this topic, as they can get very heated and you might start to reconsider.
Watch a documentary on the topic to get a better understanding. The most common ones are What the Health, Forks over Knives, Cowspiracy and Earthlings.
Consult with a doctor or nutritionist if you are worried or have some questions.[Edit]References
[Edit]Quick Summary↑ http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iron-HealthProfessional/

↑ http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-HealthProfessional/

↑ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/daily/graphics/diet_042005.html

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