How to Use Either and Neither

If you have difficulty figuring out when to use “either” and when to use “neither,” you’re not alone. Proper use of these words sometimes confuses native English speakers and it’s all the more difficult to know when to use them when you’re just learning English. To further complicate the issue, these two versatile words can be used as 4 different parts of speech: conjunction, adjective, pronoun, or adverb. It might be helpful to remember that “either” is often paired with “or” and “neither” is almost always paired with “nor.”

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Conjunctions
Link two alternative things together with “either” or “neither.” When used as a conjunction, the words “either” and “neither” pair with “or” or “nor” to link two distinct things. If you have more than two options, it would not be appropriate to use “either” or “neither.” The conjunction “either/or” means that only one of the two things you’ve listed will happen. “Neither/nor,” on the other hand, means that none of the two things listed will happen.[1]
Either/or example: “For dessert, we can have either cake or pie.” In this example, it is not an option to have both cake and pie – you can only have one or the other.
Neither/nor example: “I will neither cook for you nor pick something up.” In this example, you don’t know for sure what the speaker is going to do, but you do know of two things that they specifically are not going to do.
Place “either” or “neither” after the verb if the actions are similar. If the actions you’re comparing share a verb, use “either” or “neither” after the shared verb. Then place the word “or” or “nor” between the two actions.[2]
Either/or example: “The restaurant offered either steak or fish as the main course.” In this example, you have a choice between steak and fish.
Neither/nor example: “Vegans eat neither meat nor animal byproducts.” This example explains that vegans do not eat any meat or animal byproducts such as eggs, milk, or cheese.
Move “either” or “neither” to before the verb is the actions are different. “Either” and “neither” can also be used to link two things that each have their own verb. In this situation, the conjunction joins the entire verb phrase.[3]
Either/or example: “You can either ride a bike or drive a car.” In this example, you have the choice of riding a bike or driving a car, but you can’t do both at the same time.
Neither/no example: “Chefs neither wash dishes nor serve customers.” This example explains that while chefs work in restaurants, they are not responsible for washing dishes or serving food to diners.
Use “nor” only when you use the word “neither.” While you often see the word “or” used by itself without the word “either,” the word “nor” is only used when the word “neither” also appears in the sentence. Instead of using the word “nor” by itself, either make the verb negative and use the word “or” or add the word “neither.”[4]
For example, suppose someone wrote: “I fear man nor beast.” This would be incorrect. To fix it, you could write either “I don’t fear man or beast” or “I fear neither man nor beast.”
Choose singular verbs for most “neither/nor” constructions. The “neither/nor” construction means that none of the linked options are available or will happen. A singular verb is usually appropriate unless the last of the linked options is a plural word.[5]
For example, you could write “Neither a cupcake nor a cookie sounds good to me.” However, you would write “Neither Game of Thrones nor dragons interest me,” because the word “dragons” is plural.
If both of the linked options are plural, you would also use a plural verb. However, what’s important when choosing which verb form to use is whether the last option that precedes the verb is singular or plural.
Match the verb in “either/or” constructions to the noun closest to the verb. When using “either/or,” you state that only one of the two options is available or can be chosen at a time. Make the verb you use singular or plural depending on whether the noun that precedes the verb is singular or plural.[6]
For example, you would say “Either a burger or pizza sounds good to me.” But if you were contemplating ordering several pizzas, you would say “Either a burger or pizzas sound good to me.”
Maintain parallelism with alternatives joined by “either/or” or “neither/nor.” When using “either/or” or “neither/nor” as a conjunction, the two alternatives presented should have the same or similar constructions. The elements of each alternative thus parallel each other.[7]
For example, instead of saying “Passengers were compensated either with food or vouchers,” you would say “Passengers were compensated with either food or vouchers.” Notice how you move the word “with” before the word “either,” so that the two things you’re comparing are the same: “food” and “vouchers.”[Edit]Adjectives
Place “either” or “neither” immediately in front of the noun it modifies. You don’t always need to combine “either” and “neither” with “or” or “nor.” If you want to present two alternatives that are essentially the same thing, use a single noun combined with “either” or “neither.”[8]
Either example: “You can choose either kitten.” In this example, there are exactly two kittens, and you can have one of them (but not both).
Neither example: “Neither kitten is for sale.” In this example, you are being told that there are two kittens but you can’t have them.
Use “either” or “neither” as a determiner for the noun. When used as an adjective, “either” and “neither” are determiners that clarify the noun for your reader or listener. With “either,” you’re saying that the statement is true for only one of two alternatives. With “neither,” there are two alternatives and your statement doesn’t apply to them.[9]
For example, if you say “Neither candidate was prepared for the debate,” you are telling your listener that there are two candidates participating in the debate, but they were not adequately prepared to discuss the questions posed to them.
On the other hand, if you say “Either kitten can be adopted,” you are telling your listener that there are two kittens left in the litter, but only one of them is available for adoption.
Replace “either” or “neither” with alternate expressions. If you’re not certain if you’re using “either” or “neither” correctly, you can express the statement differently by making the noun negative or using a different noun phrase. If the alternative expression communicates what you intended, you’ve used the word correctly.[10]
Instead of saying “You may adopt either kitten,” you could say “You may adopt one of the two kittens.”
Instead of saying “You may adopt neither kitten,” you could say “You may not adopt one and you may not adopt the other of the two kittens,” or “You may not adopt either of the two kittens.”[Edit]Pronouns
Follow “either” or “neither” with the word “of” and a noun phrase. “Either” and “neither” can also be used as pronouns that stand for two specific things that can be described using the same noun. If you use “either,” you’re saying that the statement is only true for one of the two things. With “neither,” the statement isn’t true for either of the two things.[11]
Either example: “Either of the kittens can be adopted.” In this example, you’re saying that only one of the kittens can be adopted but not both of them.
Neither example: “Neither of the kittens is up for adoption.” In this example, you’re saying that there are exactly two kittens but they are not available to be adopted.
Use a singular verb when “either” or “neither” is the subject of the sentence. When using “either” or “neither” as a pronoun, you may be tempted to use a plural verb since the noun immediately preceding the verb is plural. However, the verb should agree with “either” or “neither.” Since “either” always means one thing and “neither” means no things, a singular verb is appropriate.[12]
Either example: “Either of the desserts comes with your meal.”
Neither example: “Neither of the desserts is sugar-free.”
Substitute alternate expressions to check your usage. You can make the verb negative or add additional words to say the same thing without using “either” or “neither.” This can be a good way to double-check and make sure you’re using the correct word.[13]
Instead of “You can adopt either of the kittens,” you could say “You can adopt one or the other of the kittens” or “You can adopt one of the kittens or you can adopt the other kitten.”
Instead of “You can adopt neither of the kittens,” you could say “You cannot adopt either of the kittens,” or “You cannot adopt the one kitten and you cannot adopt the other kitten.”[Edit]Adverbs
Use “either” to mean “in addition.” As an adverb, “either” is always combined with a negative statement. It combines two statements about one thing, but instead of meaning that only one of them is true, it means that both of them are true.[14]
For example, if you said “The apartment’s rent is affordable and it’s not small either,” you would be saying that the apartment was affordable and also not small.
Use “neither” if you want to eliminate all options presented. When used as an adverb, the word “neither” means “similarly not” or “also not.” Neither creates a negation that may indicate agreement with the other statement or completely rule out both things offered.[15]
For example, if someone says to you “I don’t think I want to go to the concert tomorrow night,” you might reply “If you don’t go, neither will I.” You’re telling the person that you’re only interested in going to the concert if they’re going too.
Indicate a link with the previous statement made. “Either” and “neither” are frequently used as adverbs when someone says something to you and you want to express agreement with what they said or otherwise express your preference. The key difference is that “neither” eliminates all options presented.[16]
Either example: ”
Neither example: “Would you like coffee or tea?” “Neither.”[Edit]Tips
In American English, “either” and “neither” are pronounced with a long E sound in the first syllable. In British English, however, the long I sound is preferred. Both pronunciations are correct, but if you use the British pronunciation when talking to Americans, you might come across as pretentious.[17][Edit]References↑ https://writingexplained.org/either-vs-neither-difference

↑ https://www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/how-use-either-and-neither

↑ https://www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/how-use-either-and-neither

↑ https://thewritepractice.com/how-to-use-either-neither-or-and-nor-correctly/

↑ https://writingexplained.org/either-vs-neither-difference

↑ https://writingexplained.org/either-vs-neither-difference

↑ https://writingexplained.org/either-vs-neither-difference

↑ https://writingexplained.org/either-vs-neither-difference

↑ https://grammarist.com/usage/either-vs-neither/

↑ http://learnersdictionary.com/qa/The-Difference-Between-Neither-and-Either

↑ https://www.kaplaninternational.com/blog/how-to-use-either-neither-nor-and-or

↑ https://writingexplained.org/either-vs-neither-difference

↑ http://learnersdictionary.com/qa/The-Difference-Between-Neither-and-Either

↑ http://learnersdictionary.com/qa/The-Difference-Between-Neither-and-Either

↑ https://writingexplained.org/either-vs-neither-difference

↑ https://grammarist.com/usage/either-vs-neither/

↑ https://writingexplained.org/either-vs-neither-difference

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Today in History for 6th November 2019

Historical Events

1906 – Chinese Government ministries are reorganized as part of the movement towards constitutional government; but in fact the Manchu princes retain control and there is little gain for the Chinese people
1936 – RCA displays TV for press
1961 – US government issues a stamp honoring 100th birthday of James Naismith (invented game of basketball – actually Canadian)
1966 – 1st entire lineup televised in color (NBC)
1973 – “Man With the Golden Gun” begins filming
2006 – 40th Country Music Association Award: Kenny Chesney, Carrie Underwood and Keith Urban wins

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Famous Birthdays

1880 – Chris van Abkoude, Dutch-American writer and novelist (Pietje Bell, Kruimeltje), born in Rotterdam, Netherlands (d. 1959)
1903 – June Marlowe, American actress (Pardon Us, Clash of the Wolves), born in St. Cloud, Minnesota (d. 1984)
1914 – Jonathan Harris, American actor (Dr Zachary Smith-Lost in Space), born in The Bronx, New York (d. 2002)
1938 – Jim Pike, American singer (The Lettermen)
1941 – Guy Clark, American country singer (Heartbroke), born in Monahans, Texas (d. 2016)
1982 – Sowelu, Japanese pop singer, born in Tokyo

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Famous Deaths

1650 – William II, Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, dies at 24
1795 – Jiří Antonín Benda, Czech composer and violinist, dies at 73
1937 – Johnston Forbes-Robertson, British actor and theatre director (Kathleen), dies at 84
1979 – Chick Evans, American golfer (US Open 1916), dies at 89
1989 – Yusaku Matsuda, Japanese actor (b. 1949)
2001 – Anthony Shaffer, English dramatist (Sleuth), dies at 75

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How to Measure Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a common eye condition that causes blurry vision. It occurs when your cornea is more oblong, or football-shaped, than round. Astigmatism can be diagnosed by your optometrist or ophthalmologist with a comprehensive eye exam. It can be corrected with glasses, contacts, or sometimes surgery – but measuring the shape of your cornea is important for getting the right lens prescription.[1] Astigmatism is usually measured with a series of eye exams, some that are standard practice and others that may apply only to certain circumstances.

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Using the Standard Measurement Tools
Perform the Visual Acuity Test. At your eye doctor’s office, stand where your doctor tells you and look at a chart of numbers and letters on the wall. Cover one eye and read the lines of text to the smallest line you can clearly read, then repeat this with your other eye covered. This tests for myopia (near-sightedness) and hyperopia (far-sightedness), as well as astigmatism.[2]
Astigmatism accompanies myopia or hyperopia 50% of the time. Blurry vision could be caused by astigmatism or one of these other common conditions.
The results will be listed as a fraction, such as 20/20. 20/20 is normal visual acuity. The first number is the distance between you and the chart. The second number is the size of the letters on the last line you can read compared to normal visual acuity. For instance, someone with 20/40 vision has to be 20 feet from something that can be read at by someone with normal vision.[3]
Measure the curve of your cornea with a keratometer. A keratometer is the instrument your eye doctor can use to measure the curve of your anterior cornea (the front surface of the cornea).[4] Sit with your chin on the chin rest and look straight ahead into the instrument with one eye then the other, when prompted by your doctor. The keratometer shines a circle of light onto your cornea and measures how it reflects over your cornea’s surface.
This is an especially important test for getting contact lenses that fit correctly.
Though this method has its limitations, it’s still the standard way of measuring astigmatism.[5]
Use refraction to measure astigmatism. Sit up straight and look forward while your doctor places a retinoscope in front of your eyes. The retinoscope is a small, handheld instrument that measures light refraction on the eye. Your doctor will move a large machine with lenses (a phoropter) in front of your eyes that either clarify or obscure your vision, which measures how your eyes focus light. You will have to tell your doctor whether each lens makes your vision better or worse.[6]
The refraction test helps to establish the location of the irregular shape of the cornea. This will be called the “axis” in a corrective lens prescription.
Be honest with your doctor during these tests – even though technology is improving, your feedback still helps determine the outcomes of your eye exam.
Understand your astigmatism prescription. After your eye exam, your doctor will give you a prescription for glasses or contact lenses to help fix your astigmatism. The prescription will usually have three numbers – the first one relates to if you’re near-sighted or far-sighted, and the last two relate to your astigmatism.[7]
The second number is for “cylinder,” which is a measure of how flat or irregular your cornea is. This is measured in diopters. Most people with astigmatism have between 0.5-0.75 diopters; you probably need prescription lenses for a diopter measurement of 1.5 or higher.
The third number is for “axis” and goes from 0 to 180, which is a degree measurement of where on your cornea the astigmatism is located.[Edit]Utilizing Other Measurement Options
Use a corneal topographer for more precise measurements. A topographer is a newer version of the keratometer.[8] Your doctor will have you sit at a table and look into a bowl. This bowl’s inner surface is covered in a pattern of concentric rings. A digital camera sits at the base of the bowl and charts the cornea’s surface by measuring the reflected pattern in the eye. This basically creates a contour map of your eye, and it’s an excellent technique for measuring irregular astigmatism.[9]
Most corneal topography tests measure 8,000 to 10,000 points on the cornea, making it the most accurate keratometry test.
Other advanced ways of measuring astigmatism include autorefractors that measure refraction, and the IOLMaster that makes extensive measurements of the interior and exterior of the eye. The IOLMaster is usually used before cataract surgery.[10]
Try a Placido disc for irregular astigmatism. The Placido disc is an old-fashioned, hand-held device that is shaped like a giant lollipop. The disc has several sets of concentric circles painted on one side, and is used to measure the regularity of your cornea’s surface. Your doctor holds the disc up to their own eye with the rings pointed towards you, and they look into your eye. Sit still and look straight ahead. The image of your cornea reflects back, and where there is irregular shape it makes the concentric rings look distorted to your doctor.[11]
This old-fashioned method can help to diagnose keratoconus, a disorder that causes irregular astigmatism due to thinning and protruding of the cornea.
Use a Scheimpflug device to measure the posterior cornea. The shape of your posterior cornea (the back surface of the cornea) can influence the severity of your astigmatism.[12] Keratometry can only measure the front of your cornea, but Scheimpflug imaging uses tomography to get more accurate readings of how thick your cornea is and what the back of it looks like.[13]
This method can be helpful in predicting how successful surgery may be in correcting your astigmatism.[14][Edit]Tips
Usually, more than one eye test is done to measure astigmatism. An ophthalmologist or optometrist will do a series of tests in their office using various equipment.[15]
Most astigmatism can be treated by wearing prescription glasses or contact lenses. Depending on the severity of your astigmatism, laser surgery like LASIK may also improve your vision. In severe cases, like with keratoconus, a corneal transplant surgery or the use of rigid, cornea-shaping corrective lenses may be necessary.[16][Edit]Video
[Edit]References↑ http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/astigmatism?sso=y#2

↑ http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/astigmatism?sso=y#2

↑ http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/astigmatism?sso=y#2

↑ http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/astigmatism?sso=y#2

↑ http://www.ophthalmologyweb.com/Tech-Spotlights/26530-Keratometry-Focusing-on-Astigmatism/

↑ http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/astigmatism?sso=y#2

↑ https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-do-astigmatism-measurements-mean

↑ http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/astigmatism?sso=y#2

↑ http://www.ophthalmologyweb.com/Tech-Spotlights/26530-Keratometry-Focusing-on-Astigmatism/

↑ http://www.ophthalmologyweb.com/Tech-Spotlights/26530-Keratometry-Focusing-on-Astigmatism/

↑ http://phisick.com/item/placidos-disk-for-astigmatism/

↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25162757

↑ http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2212759

↑ https://www.eyeworld.org/article-review-of–contribution-of-posterior-corneal-astigmatism-to-total-corneal-astigmatism-

↑ http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/astigmatism/diagnosis-treatment/diagnosis/dxc-20253081

↑ https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-do-astigmatism-measurements-mean

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