How to Make Cappuccino Foam

A cappuccino is a coffee drink made with espresso and steamed milk.[1] The most striking thing about this drink is the milk foam on top. A soothing, consistent layer of foam is what sets a great cappuccino apart from lesser drinks. There’s a greater part art than science in making the perfect cappuccino. Although it takes time to perfect the timing and method of pouring, having a firm knowledge of the basics will get you on your way towards the ultimate cup.

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Making the Foam with a Steam Pitcher
Pour brewed espresso into your cappuccino cup. Although specifics will depend on the type of cappuccino and the person making it, cappuccinos are roughly one quarter espresso and three quarters steamed milk.[2] Pour your desired amount of brewed espresso into a large cappuccino cup before you steam the milk. That way, you’ll have everything ready so you can pour out the steamed milk while it’s still piping hot.
Fill a steam pitcher with cold milk. Steam pitchers are specifically designed to heat liquid through steaming. Most traditional cappuccinos are served as 6 ounce portions, although many North American outlets prefer a 12-ounce version. Use 3/4 cup to 1 1/2 cups of milk, depending on your preference.Non-fat milk is best if you’re looking to get the most foam.[3] However, non-fat milk will lack the creamy taste of its fatty alternative. It’s up to you whether you favor foam or flavor.
Alternatives to steaming with a steam pitcher include using a metal pitcher with a steam wand, using a frother or shaking up the milk in a jar. An authentic cappuccino will rely on steaming, however.
Steam the milk until it’s hot. Steaming milk gives cappuccinos their heat and bubbly quality. You should aim to keep your steamed milk between 140 and 160 degrees Fahrenheit. For the sake of drinkability, it’s important not to steam milk past 170 degrees. Depending on the steamer and the amount and temperature of the milk you’re steaming, steaming can take between 10-40 seconds in most cases.[4] It’s a really good idea to have a thermometer at hand to put in the milk. That way you can make sure it’s the exact temperature you want without having to resort to guesswork.If you don’t have a thermometer, you can gauge the temperature increase by putting your hand up against the outside of the pitcher. Wait until the pitcher starts to get warm to the touch. When the outside of the pitcher gets uncomfortably hot, it should be an indicator that the milk has steamed long enough.[5]
Use your steamed milk quickly.[6] The longer steamed milk is left out, the less palatable it will be in a cappuccino. Milk is very sensitive to heat, and should only be steamed right before it’s injected into the cappuccino mug. If you’re making a larger batch of cappuccinos at once, hold off from steaming a large quantity of milk at once. Milk that is heated and reheated gets stale and loses its potential for foam.
Pour the hot milk into the cappuccino cup.[7] A cappuccino should be served in a coffee cup, and you’ll ultimately need to combine the milk with the espresso. The trick here is to pour the milk in slowly. Any quick movements will risk compromising the foam. Level out your pitcher slowly as you pour.One way to save the most foam for your top is to take a spoon and use it to trap in the foam at the top of the pitcher. When the pitcher is almost empty, you can pour out the foam.
Even out the foam with a spoon if it’s poured out unevenly.
Tell the difference between a good and bad foam.[8] Getting a perfect foam ultimately depends on your skill. With that in mind, it may take a few times before you get the kind of foam you want. However, you’ll need to be able to distinguish a failure from a success to do so. A proper cappuccino foam should be even and soft. A bad foam will look very foamy and might risk frothing off the sides.
There are two main reasons that could be the cause of a less-than-desired foam result. First, the steamed milk needs to be poured at the right depth. Secondly, the heat may of the steamed milk may have been too high to properly settle into soft bubbles.
Don’t be discouraged if you get a bad foam the first time you try it. Perfect coffee beverages require a lot more skill that people give it credit for. Each time you try, you’ll get a bit closer to figuring out the subtle movements involved in it.[Edit]Using Other Methods to Make Foam
Use a steam wand with a chilled metal pitcher.[9] A steam wand will heat up your milk in a way doesn’t affect the taste of the milk. Dip your steam wand into the milk until its approximately a centimeter away from the bottom of your pitcher. As heat tends to rise, steaming it from the bottom up will ensure that your milk heats evenly.
Try a milk frother. Unlike a steamer, where the bubbles are a welcome side effect, a frother is specifically designed to give milk bubbles. They’re relatively inexpensive and can be purchased online if need be.[10] Put your frother tip about a centimeter below the surface and hold it under for approximately 20 seconds while it froths. Move the frother slowly around the cup to make sure the bubbles are even.If you use a frother, you won’t need to use a steamer to heat the milk. In that case, milk can be heated on stovetop or in the microwave.
Shake up your milk for an easy froth. If you’re making a cappuccino, it’s assumed that you’re wanting to go for quality over convenience. All the same, you can get a functional froth by shaking milk up before heating it.[11] Put a cup of cold milk into a sealed jar or container. Shake it vigorously for up to a minute. Immediately after, throw it in the microwave and heat for 30 seconds. The heat is necessary for a proper cappuccino, but heating the milk will also stabilize the microbubbles you’ll have formed from the shaking.This is a good quick fix, and recommended if you’re not particular about your cappuccinos. Keep in mind, however that your foam won’t look nearly as good as if you steam it.[Edit]Presenting Your Cappuccino
Draw art on your cappuccino. Drawing a design atop your cappuccino can be done through purposeful movement as you pour the milk into your espresso cup. It is very tricky to do and can take months for some baristas to get the proper hang of it. However, leaving a simple heart or swirl pattern on the top of your cappuccino foam can make it look all the more professional and classy when it’s served. There are lots of possible designs for all different skill levels.[12]For a heart shape, begin pouring in the centre and let shift the pour from side to side.[13]
If your steamed milk is really foamy, latte art will be virtually impossible.[14]
Add cinnamon and chocolate flakes to your foam. Cappuccinos are valued for their presentation almost as much as their taste. Cinnamon and chocolate flakes will help to add to both. Once you have your foam settled, sprinkle these on as an afterthought. Even if you’re making it from home, this technique can make your cappuccino look like a professional delicacy.
Use proper cappuccino cups. Cappuccino cups should be small, plain, elegant and handled. Depending on the size of your cappuccino, the cups you choose should hold up to 12 ounces. Cappuccinos take more effort to make than regular coffee, so you shouldn’t use any old cup for it. Even if you think aesthetics don’t matter, you may nonetheless find you enjoy the drink more if you put due respect into the way it’s served.
Make sure the cup size matches the amount of cappuccino you’re serving. Cafe culture tends to value smaller sizes in order to emphasize taste over gorging. Even if you only have a certain amount of cappuccino to drink, putting it in a cup that’s too big will rob it of some of its visual appeal.
Serve with small cookies. Cookies, biscotti, brownies, muffins or other pastry snacks are a longtime friend of cappuccinos and other coffee drinks. Put a couple of cookies on a plate next to your cappuccino. In doing so, you’ll elevate it from a drink to a multi-part cafe experience. Enjoy![Edit]Tips
The word “cappuccino” is derived from the Capuchin Monks. The drink got its name from sharing a similar color to the clothes they were known for wearing.[15][Edit]Warnings
Coffee products shouldn’t be served in larger portions than 12 ounces. Some cafe aficionados will snub their noses at sizes greater than 6 ounces. Depending on who you’re trying to impress (if anyone) this may be something to keep in mind.
Cappuccinos are hot. Be careful not to burn yourself while you’re making one.[Edit]Things You’ll Need
Fresh cold milk (at least one cup)
Brewed espresso
A pitcher
Cinnamon and other add-ons
A steam wand[Edit]Related wikiHows
Make a Blended Iced Cappuccino
Make a Cappuccino with Instant Coffee
Make a Cappuccino with a French Press
Make Froth for Espresso Without an Espresso Machine
Froth Milk for Cappuccino Without Fancy Tools
Make Latte Art
[Edit]References
[Edit]Quick Summary↑ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cappuccino

↑ http://www.illy.com/wps/wcm/connect/en/coffee/how-prepare-cappuccino

↑ http://lifehacker.com/5646061/use-non-fat-milk-for-better-foam-on-coffee-drinks

↑ https://www.home-barista.com/espresso-guide-frothing-milk.html

↑ https://www.home-barista.com/espresso-guide-frothing-milk.html

↑ http://www.businessinsider.com/how-to-make-cappuccino-2013-9

↑ http://www.thekitchn.com/how-to-froth-milk-for-cappuccinos-in-the-microwave-cooking-lessons-from-the-kitchn-100716

↑ https://www.home-barista.com/espresso-guide-frothing-milk.html

↑ http://www.businessinsider.com/how-to-make-cappuccino-2013-9

↑ http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/appliances/milk-frother-reviews/g2085/milk-frothers/?

↑ http://www.thekitchn.com/how-to-froth-milk-for-cappuccinos-in-the-microwave-cooking-lessons-from-the-kitchn-100716

↑ http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/creative-latte-coffee-art/

↑ https://www.home-barista.com/espresso-guide-pouring-latte-art.html

↑ https://www.home-barista.com/espresso-guide-frothing-milk.html

↑ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cappuccino

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Today in History for 8th November 2019

Historical Events

1861 – USS San Jacinto commanded by Charles Wilkes captures two Confederate diplomats from the British mail steamer Trent, almost causing a war between the US and the UK
1961 – Imperial Airlines Flight 201/8, a Lockheed Constellation aircraft, crashes near Richmond, Virginia, 77 die
1973 – Nevada approves pari-mutuel betting on Jai Alai
1983 – STS-9 vehicle again moves to launch pad
2013 – At least 6,000 people are killed after Typhoon Haiyan, tied with Typhoon Meranti as being the strongest storm ever recorded at landfall, hits the Philippines
2017 – UK Minister Priti Patel resigns after secret meetings revealed with Israeli officials

More Historical Events »

Famous Birthdays

1491 – Teofilo Folengo, Italian macaronic poet, born in Mantua, Italy (d. 1544)
1854 – Johannes Rydberg, Swedish physicist (Rydberg formula), born in Halmstad, Sweden (d. 1919)
1938 – Murtala Mohammed, Nigerian military ruler, born in Bendel State, Colonial Nigeria (d. 1976)
1957 – Pearl Thompson, British musician (The Cure), born in Surrey, England
1960 – Oleg Menshikov, Russian actor (Burnt by the Sun), born in Serpukhov, Moscow Oblast, Russian SFSR
1968 – Sergio Porrini, Italian footballer, born in Milan, Italy

More Famous Birthdays »

Famous Deaths

1494 – Melozzo da Forli, Italian painter, dies at about 56
1978 – Norman Rockwell, artist (Saturday Evening Post covers), dies at 84
1983 – Betty Nuthall, English tennis player (US Nat C’ship 1930), dies of a coronary arrest at 72
1995 – Country Dan Dick Montana McLain, singer, dies at 40
2004 – Peter Mathers, English-born Australian novelist (b. 1931)
2005 – David Westheimer, American novelist (Von Ryan’s Express), dies at 88

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How to Invest in the Stock Market

Starting to think about retirement? Wondering how you’ll be able to afford to spend your golden years in comfort? Investing in the stock market is one way to increase your wealth and security, but it is not without some serious risks. Follow these tips to get a solid start on your financial future.

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Learning About Stocks
Understand the stock market. In order to invest properly, you need to understand what the stock market is and how it operates. Here’s a basic rundown of terms and processes:
Stocks. Also referred to as “shares” or “equity,” a stock is a certificate that gives the holder part-ownership of a company. In order to raise money, a company releases shares that the public can buy. Each share represents a small percentage of ownership in that company.
Shareholder. This is a person who owns shares in a company. A shareholder can hold as few as one share and as many as millions. Shareholders are given votes in the company and earn a percentage of the profits.
Stock Market. This is where shares of companies are bought and sold. It can be a physical place or a virtual market. The three primary stock markets in the US are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the American Stock Exchange (AMEX), and the National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotation System (NASDAQ). All are accessible through stockbrokers, both by phone and online.
Familiarize yourself with different kinds of stocks. There are two main types of stocks: common and preferred.
Common stock is the form of stock most recognizable to newcomers. It is a share in a company. Common stock can give some of the highest returns in investing but comes with the largest risk.
Preferred stock gives ownership like common stock does, but does not bestow voting rights. The dividends paid out by preferred stock are fixed instead of variable like common stock. Preferred stock is a more secure source of dividend income than is common stock.
Stocks can also be broken down into different classes if the company chooses. Typically, a company will make one class of share have more voting rights than the other, to make sure that certain groups maintain control of the company.
Learn about how stocks increase and decrease in value. Stocks operate according to the law of supply and demand. As the demand for a stock increases and more people are interested in buying than selling, the price of the stock goes up. This is because there is less supply of the stock and each share becomes more valuable. Stocks generally increase in demand as the company succeeds, and their demand lowers if the company performance suffers.
Demand is often based on expectations of future performance. When investors feel that the company will be performing better in the near future, demand will increase.
It is impossible to predict with any certainty how the overall stock market will behave. This is why there is so much risk associated with this form of investment.
Find out about dividends. Dividends are a benefit paid to shareholders at the discretion of the board of directors.
Stable companies often pay dividends to keep investors happy when their stock price does not rise much.
Dividends are a great way to earn “passive” (automatic) income over a long period of time.
Understand why you want to invest. Ask yourself why you want to invest and what you expect to gain from it. The stock market can be very volatile, and a bad day could see you lose a significant part of your investment.
Good investors invest for the long term. If you are looking to cash in right away, the stock market might not be a good place to put your money.
Don’t invest if you are trying to get out of debt. Make sure any high-interest debts are taken care of before investing in the stock market.
Successful stock investing requires dedicated time from the investor. Ask yourself if you have the time to investigate companies for at least a few hours a week. Such research is extremely important. There are many research services available to do some of the leg work for you. Look online for websites like Scottrade, ShareBuilder, Motley Fool, E-trade, TDAmeritrade, TradeKing, Morningstar, and TheStreet, to name just a few. It is very dangerous to pick stocks without first investigating them thoroughly.[Edit]Choosing Stocks to Invest In
Determine your strengths. Since you will have to do some research when it comes to which company to invest in, focus at first on companies that you have some working knowledge of. This will make things a little more interesting and engaging as you get started.
Check local companies, as you may have more of an opportunity to engage them and get a feel for how their business affects your area.
Consider the overall value of a stock. You’ll need to do some research and math to determine the value of a company. You’ll soon see that a one-dollar stock is not necessarily cheaper than a $40 one. A stock with a real value higher than the listed price is one that’s probably worth buying.
Since buying stock means buying part-ownership of a company, determine if it would make financial sense to buy the entire company (assuming you had the money).
Find out how long it would take to pay off your investment from profits if you bought the entire company. Use the results to determine if it is worthwhile to invest in shares.
Keep in mind that profits can change wildly as markets change. Technologies can become obsolete, or regulations could change, rendering a company’s products less valuable or even useless.
To determine the value of a company, you will have to look at several variables. These include Future Performance, Cash Flow, and Revenue, among many others. [1]
Future Performance. A company’s worth is based largely on projections of future performance. Past performance is important only as an indication of how the company will perform in the future.
Cash Flow. In general, a company that has a lot of assets and high operating costs has less cash flow than a similar business with less assets and a lower operating cost. Cash flow is cash on hand that can be used to pay debt.
Revenue. Revenue is one of the major factors when valuing a company. If two companies have the same cash flow, but one has a higher revenue, that company will most likely be worth more.
Create a diverse portfolio. While it is important to invest in what you know, you don’t want all your eggs in one basket. If something happens to the industry that you are invested in, you could lose much of your investment in short order. Invest broadly to minimize risk of sudden loss.
Invest in a broad range of economic sectors. If you are heavily focused in technology, consider investing in consumer goods, real estate or any number of other industries.
Most investment experts recommend against putting all of your investable funds into the stock market. Also consider bonds, currencies, and commodities.
Try to create a portfolio of around 20 different stocks that aren’t related. This should be a manageable number to keep track of while still providing a wide array of earning opportunities. [2]
Know when to buy. Buying at the right time is essential to successful investing.
Don’t buy everything at once. If the market takes a downturn right after you buy, you could lose most of your investment. Instead, spread out your initial investment over several months to minimize the risk each time you buy.
Consult a stock chart when considering stock purchases. Google and Yahoo both provide comprehensive online stock charts, and there are many other similar services to choose from.
Check to see if the stock trend is rising. This means that the price has been increasing steadily. Look for stocks that are increasing but not necessarily rapidly. Stocks will only go so high, so if a price is climbing rapidly, there’s a good chance that it will level off or drop soon.
Check the volume of trades. If a stock is finding steadily more buyers, that’s a good indicator of the stock’s health. A rising price with a declining volume could mean that the price will drop soon due to lack of interest.
Find the moving average of the stock. The moving average is the average price of a stock over time. Ideally this average would be increasing and the listed price would be above this average.
Avoid volatile stocks. If the price jumps too much, and there are a lot of spikes in the chart, the stock is probably too unstable to safely invest in.
Contact a broker when ready. In order to buy stocks, you must go through a licensed stockbroker. There are many options to choose from, but they boil down to four main choices. [3] Determine which one will suit your needs best.
Online/Discount Broker. Online brokers are essentially order-takers. They provide no personal assistance, and leave the decisions of what to buy and sell up to you. Fees are usually per-transaction, and they typically require very little initial investment to open an account. The research will be up to you.
Discount Broker with Assistance. This is essentially the same as the category above, except the broker may provide a bit more basic research, such as newsletters and in-house research reports. The fee is often higher than online-only because of these extra services.
Full-Service Broker. These are the traditional stock brokers who will meet with you and discuss your full financial situation, as well as risk analysis. They will help develop financial plans and give advice in other financial areas such as taxes. Full-service brokers will be quite a bit more expensive than a discount broker, but many offer significant benefits.
Money Manager. A money manager takes full control of your personal finances. Their clients are typically those with a significant amount of income, and the usual minimum account is $100,000 or more.[Edit]After You Invest
Buy and hold good stocks. Selling stocks as soon as they rise in price is a sure way to move nowhere fast. Practice self control and hold on to solid stocks unless you’re desperate to raise cash. Good stocks can result in big payoffs over the long run.
If you buy and sell repeatedly, much of your profit will go to commissions for brokers, and your gains will suffer.
“Day trading” is stacked against newcomers, because they trade against seasoned professionals and computer programs designed to buy and sell at optimum moments.
Instead, hold on to stocks of companies that are solid and growing. If your stocks pay dividends, reinvest them to increase your earning potential.
Add to your portfolio as you go. Once your portfolio is established, revisit it every so often and make appropriate changes.
Move money out of sectors that aren’t performing well and invest more in areas that are seeing greater returns.
Add more investments with additional funds as they become available in order to continue diversifying.
Know when to sell. Ideally, you want to sell a stock when it reaches the value you determined when investigating the company and when the value is not expected to rise much more.
If your stock has not met the target value and doesn’t look like it’s going to, sell it, especially if the price falls below the moving average. This is typically seen as the “last chance” to get rid of a stock before it dips too low. [4][Edit]What To Expect Using a Professional Broker
Expect to pay a fee for every transaction you make. Brokers make their money charging you for each time you buy or sell a stock. You need to know this fee going in, but you also need to make it clear to your broker your acceptable level of trading. Some brokers will try to sucker in novice investors with high-commission stocks and multiple trades to make more money.
If you have a large account and plan on frequent or aggressive trades, you might look for a commission-based account, where the broker gets a percentage of your portfolio instead of a fee per trade.
If your broker is making frequent changes and trades, known as “churning,” they may be trying to raise their commission. Any trading that eats into your principal should be red-flagged.[5]
Expect your broker to ask your acceptable level of risk. Your risk tolerance determines how bold of an investment the broker will take. Stocks are, in some way, gambling, and there are both safe bets and long-shots. Your broker will want guidance on where to steer the portfolio, based on your financial needs:
Younger investors should aim for high-risk investments. Stocks are a long game, and any busts now will more than likely be rectified with later booms. You have the time to afford the risk.
Middle-aged investors should strike a balance between safe and risky stocks.
Low-risk accounts will make safe bets with lower profits. These are great for older investments who could not deal with a sudden loss of money near retirement, or those who only want slow, reliable growth.
Expect most professional investors to choose margin accounts, not cash accounts. There are two basic investment account options — cash and cash/margin accounts. Cash accounts must have a deposit available to make a trade– the money must be on hand. Margin accounts allow you to borrow money from the brokerage firm to purchase stocks. This loan is based on the expected profit from the stock.
Cash accounts are safer, but yield far less profit. You know exactly where all your money is, and whose money it is.
Margin accounts technically put you into debt, though interest rates are far lower than that at a bank. Because they make more money available to you, you stand to earn more money. Some higher-risk trades are only available on margin accounts.[6]
Expect the broker to determine your tax status based on your financial needs. Are you in the stock game to make a profit right now, or for retirement? Depending on how you classify your portfolio, your broker can get you potentially lower tax rates.
Standard brokerage accounts can be swapped, taken out, and edited on the fly. They can be short or long-term investments or a bit of both. They are fully taxed.
Retirement accounts, like IRAs, pay much lower taxes. However, you can only take the money out of them at a certain age, or risk losing much of your profit.
A professional trader would usually have both types of accounts, though this requires a lot of upfront cash.[7]
Expect the meeting to end with a request for your investment money. Most brokers will give you up to two weeks to give them money. You can cut a check, which will take about a week to get cleared. If you’re in a hurry, expect to get a routing number and instructions to wire transfer your money over.
Professional investors always set aside specific accounts for investments. They don’t link their investment money to a savings or checking account.[8]
Expect a professional broker often uses algorithm-based trading. The stock market is not what it used to be. Professionals now have mines of data, and computer programs to sift through them, making split-second trading decisions for your investment that you could rarely make alone. This is why, if you have the money, full-scale brokers often turn the highest profits.
That said, the financial crash of 2007 was partially due a broken algorithm that investors used but didn’t understand.[9]
Expect a professional to invest in things other than stock. While investing in the stock market may be the goal, a professional investor knows better than to put all of their money in one basket. All of these, including stocks, fall under the blanket definition of a “security.”
CDs, or Certificates of Deposit, are savings accounts that mature at a certain date, at which point you receive a small profit. They can range from one month to five years.
Bonds are loans that your grant, usually to the government, that must be paid back with interest. They are safe, consistent investments that generally outpace inflation.
Expect a broker to invest in “funds,” or pre-made collections of stocks. Funds are created either by a brokerage firm or an outside agency. Basically, they allow multiple investors to take risks together by all paying together for a larger portfolio, and thus more profit as there is usually a manager of the funds who buys and sells stocks inside of it. While they are usually profitable, you have to be comfortable with someone else handling your money with little control on your end.[10][Edit]Tips
Never invest more than you can afford to lose.
Make sure to pay off any high-interest debt before you begin investing. Eliminating credit card debt, for instance, can be one of the best “investments” you’ll ever make.
Expect the stock market to be very volatile. Be aware that you are likely to take some losses, especially while you’re still an inexperienced investor.
Before investing try and bifurcate between a mature/saturated stock and volatile stock, this will help you to avoid wasting time and money from “work done equal to zero” concept!
Research and consult famous people who go rich from the stock market. Figure out how they think and act, and hopefully this will help you get accustomed to the tendencies of the market.
Depending on what you want out of your stocks, a good time to sell is usually when they are double the original value.[Edit]Warnings
Most financial advisors will tell anyone approaching retirement to lower his/her exposure to the stock market and invest more in bonds. This is to limit the chance of losing money in the short term. Those anticipating a lengthy period of retirement should remain invested in stocks to some extent.
If you don’t diversify your portfolio, then you and your money are stuck with the outcome of whatever specific category or market you choose. If you buy a range of different types of stock, then when one specific market collapses the others keep you afloat.[Edit]Related wikiHows
Buy Euros Online
Buy Stocks
Choose Stocks
Invest in Stocks
Invest in Preconstruction Real Estate
Decide Whether to Invest or Pay off Debt
Earn Regular Income from Stock Investing Via Dividends
Start an Investment Club
Invest in Dividend Stocks
Decide Whether to Buy Stocks or Mutual Funds
Value Average
Invest in the Stock Market[Edit]References
[Edit]Quick Summary↑ http://www.bizacquisition.com/Value_of_a_Business.html

↑ http://www.nasdaq.com/investing/getting-started-in-stocks.stm

↑ http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/05/042205.asp

↑ http://winninginvestor.quickanddirtytips.com/when-should-you-sell-a-stock.aspx

↑ http://www.investopedia.com/articles/pf/06/dependablebroker.asp

↑ https://www.firstrade.com/content/en-us/education/margin/margincash/

↑ http://stansberryresearch.com/opening-a-brokerage-account/

↑ http://stansberryresearch.com/opening-a-brokerage-account/

↑ http://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/feb/12/black-scholes-equation-credit-crunch

↑ http://www.businessinsider.com/investing-basics-young-people-5-2014-9

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