How to Deal With Exam Stress

Exams are a crucial part of education and the source of stress for many students. In order to avoid crippling anxiety from these pesky evaluations, it is important to approach them with a clear mind and an understanding of how to deal with stressful situations more broadly. In many cases, exam stress is all in the mind, and mental discipline is a large part of what is needed to succeed.

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Preparing for the Test
Know what is expected of you. Be sure to consult your syllabus or ask your instructor what material you will be responsible for. If you have a concrete sense of what you will be tested on, the future test will feel less vague and more like something you can handle.[1]
If you aren’t clear on anything, ask your teacher. Teachers would much rather answer questions than have their students proceed without understanding what’s expected.
Make sure you have read your syllabus and any information your teacher has given you before asking the question. Your teacher won’t be pleased if you send her an email asking when the test is if it’s specified on page 1 of the syllabus.
Study in conditions similar to your test room. There is a phenomenon in psychology called context-dependent memory. It refers to the idea that we are best able to remember things in environments similar to when the information was encoded [2]. A related phenomenon is called state-dependent memory, which means that our memory is better when we learn and retrieve information in similar bodily states.[3]
If you will be in a quiet room during your exam, try to simulate those conditions while you prepare. This is using context-dependent memory to your advantage.
As an example of state-dependent memory, if you prepare for your exam using caffeine, your memory on test day may be better if you have a similar amount of caffeine then, too.[4] Use this knowledge and know that you are taking evidence-backed steps to maximize your exam score; keep that in mind if you are feeling stressed about your upcoming exam.
Take notes in class. Do not just rely on your memory or your course book. Take your class time seriously by taking notes summarizing what your teacher has said. If you are feeling exam stress, you can review your notes; this will help you remember things that happened in class that you didn’t even take notes on, further giving you a sense of mastery over your material.
When taking notes, focus on jotting down keywords and key ideas, rather than trying to take dictation. Copying out the exact sentences is not as important as getting down the main ideas.[5]
Review your notes weekly. This will help you learn the material and transfer it to long-term memory. When it comes time for the exam, you’ll feel much better prepared.
Manage your time wisely. Do not just cram for an exam last minute; this will surely lead to exam stress. Break up your study time into chunks over days, or weeks even. When you “chunk” your study time over the course of a longer period of time, such as a few days or weeks, you will retain more of the information.
If possible, because of state-dependent memory, try to study at around the same time of day as you will be taking the test. This way you will be similarly tired/awake when you study and when you take your test. You will be used to how you feel when dealing with your course material on test day.
Know where you study best. Think about the kinds of factors that allow you to be most comfortable and relaxed as you prepare for your exam. When setting up a dedicated study space:
Track the level of light in the room. Some people study better with light, others study better in dimmer light.
Examine your work space. Decide whether you work better with a bit of clutter or if a clean, fresh work space is what you prefer.
Pay attention to background noise. Does music help you concentrate or do you need a quiet environment in which to study?
Find an alternate place to study such as a library or coffee shop. A change of scenery can give you a fresh look at the material and also provide additional resources.[6]
Take frequent breaks. According to psychology studies, the average human brain can only focus on one task effectively for about 45 minutes. In addition, research in neuroscience suggests that focusing on the same thing for too long diminishes the brain’s ability to accurately process it.[7]
Stay hydrated. Be sure to drink plenty of water. Aim for at least 8 eight-ounce glasses of water per day. Not drinking enough water can make you feel sluggish and stressed.[8]
Caffeine can make you feel anxious, which can contribute to feelings of stress and anxiety. Have a cup of coffee or a cola if you like, but don’t go overboard.[9] Experts recommend getting no more than 400mg of caffeine per day for adults.[10] Kids and teens should limit themselves to about 100mg per day (one cup of coffee or 3 colas).[11]
A cup of herbal tea can help you feel more relaxed and stay hydrated. Peppermint, chamomile, and passionflower are good choices.
Reward your achievements, no matter how small. If you are feeling stressed about an exam, be sure to reward yourself for your study time. This will motivate you to continue studying and may even reduce stress.
For example, after studying hard for an hour, take a break and play on the internet for 20 minutes or watch an episode of a TV show that you enjoy. This will help you get your mind off the exam while acting as a motivational carrot that may help you pick up studying again after your break.
Exercise. Regular aerobic exercise can relieve stress, so if you find yourself a nervous wreck before an exam, go for a run or hit the gym.[12][13][14]
When you work out, listen to upbeat music that keeps you motivated throughout your workout.
For other ways to beat stress, see this handy wikiHow: Relax Before a Final Exam in College.
Meditate or do yoga after your upbeat excercise. This lets the mind focus and calm down
Eat healthy foods. When you eat unhealthy foods it can make you feel negative, which can interfere with your exam preparation. Therefore, it is important to eat right if you want to have the best odds of doing well on your exam and not stressing about it. [15][16]
Try eating lean meats, nuts, fruits, and vegetables.[17]
Avoid too much sugar or heavily processed food.
Part of eating healthy involves having a balanced diet. Try not to eat too much of only one food source. You can usually get variety in your diet by changing up the type of cuisine you eat every couple of nights.
Try having a bit of time to do yoga or meditation after other excercise to calm your brain down. Remember to breath in through your nose and out through your mouth heavily.
Get enough sleep. Not getting a full night’s rest can contribute to feelings of fatigue, stress, and anxiety.[18][19]
If you have trouble sleeping, try making your bedroom pitch black. Block out sounds by changing your environment and/or wearing earplugs.
Get into a routine and follow it every night. Take note of how many hours a night of sleep you need in order to feel refreshed in the morning; get that many hours of sleep every night.
For example, if you tend to be in bed by 10:30 PM then read for 30 minutes before falling asleep, stick to that schedule as often as possible. In this way you will train your body for sleep.[20]
See this helpful wikiHow, Sleep Before Final Exams, for more advice.
Ask yourself whether you have a learning disability. It may be the case that you have something like ADHD or other learning disability that impairs your ability to perform well on an exam. This may be stressing you out but know that schools often have resources to help you excel in school.[21]
If this is a concern for you, be sure to reach out to a school counselor or teacher for how to proceed in getting help.[Edit]De-Stressing on Exam Day
Eat a proper exam day breakfast. Without a proper breakfast your energy levels will quickly crash and may lead to stress, anxiety, and fatigue. Be sure to have a healthy, energy packed breakfast on exam day. Try eating foods that provide long lasting energy, such as eggs or oats. Avoid foods that are high in sugar, which will give temporary energy but may cause you to crash mid-exam.[22]
Hydrate. Being dehydrated negatively affects how efficiently the brain works. Be sure to stay hydrated before your exam; drink down some water with breakfast![23]
If you’re allowed to, bring a water bottle with you to your exam. Thinking is thirsty work! Just don’t be surprised if your teacher asks to examine the bottle, as some students have tried to cheat by writing answers on bottle labels.[24] (Don’t do that — cheating is never worth it, and if you get caught, you’ll be in way more trouble than you would if you’d just done poorly.
Watch your caffeine intake. As tempting as it may be, don’t have too much coffee/caffeine before your exam. Caffeine can increase feelings of anxiety and stress. If you are going to be stressed during your exam, caffeine will only exacerbate these feelings and make them more difficult to keep in check.[25]
That said, do not drastically change your typical caffeine intake on exam day. This can cause withdrawal symptoms that may interact with your stress to make you feel especially negative.[26]
Caffeine in limited quantities may have a positive effect on your memory, so if you usually have a cup of coffee with breakfast, go ahead.[27]
Arrive early. You may be nervous about the test itself so there is no need for extra stress from fear of being late. Plus, by arriving early you will be sure to get the seat that you like.[28]
Read instructions carefully. Before answering any exam questions, figure out exactly what is expected of you. Skim the test to see its content and give yourself a rough idea of how long each question will take to complete. Ambiguity can cause stress, so, by knowing how long the test is, you will reduce your stress. [Edit]Beating Stress During the Test
Avoid rushing. Take your time going through the exam. If you get stuck on a question for a long time, instead of getting stressed about it, keep in mind that it is just one question on the exam. If possible (if the way the test is structured allows it), skip that question and return to it at the end if you have time.[29]
Keep an eye on the clock and give yourself five to ten minutes to go over your answers to check for any mistakes or to guess on any questions that you initially skipped.
Chew some gum. Reduce your anxiety by chewing on some gum. This will keep your mouth busy and can act as a release for your anxiety.[30]
Ask your instructor if you’re stuck. It doesn’t hurt to ask for clarification on something. She may or may not answer your question as it may give you an unfair advantage over other students, but you lose only a few seconds by raising your hand and asking.[31]
Recognize test anxiety. Once you realize you are suffering from anxiety, use some or all of the steps below to alleviate it. Test anxiety can appear in the form of a number of symptoms including[32]:
Cramps
Dry mouth
Nausea
Headache
Rapid heartbeat
Restless thoughts
Mental blackouts
Trouble concentrating
Remember to breathe. With your eyes closed, take three large breaths, then pause, exhale, and repeat the process. Large, deliberate breaths not only help relax the body, but also increase the flow of oxygen to the brain. Use this technique both before the test and during difficult areas of the exam.
Inhale through your nose for a count of 4. Try to hold your breath for a count of 2, then slowly exhale through your mouth for a count of 4.
Expand and contract your muscles. For example, tighten your shoulders and slowly relax them, repeating the process in other tense areas of your body. Tightening muscles before relaxing them enhances the body’s relaxation awareness, which relaxes the body even more.[33]
Take a break if you need to. If allowed, get up and get a drink of water, use the bathroom, or simply stretch your legs if it will help you regain focus and decrease anxiety.
Put the exam in perspective. Keep in mind that, in the grand scheme of your future, doing poorly on one exam will likely not be that impactful. We often overestimate how bad things will be and how poorly they will make us feel.[34] Keep that in mind if you find yourself getting stressed out in the middle of your exam. It is probably not the end of the world if you do poorly. Life will go on and you can study harder for the next one!
If you catch yourself stuck in a negative thought loop, try to detach from it. Ask yourself: what’s the worst that can really happen if I don’t do well on this test? Try to remain logical about it. Can you really handle the worst that could happen? Chances are, the answer is yes.[35]
You can also think of alternatives if you find yourself stuck worrying over how important this exam is. You may be able to retake it. You may be able to make up your grade with extra credit. You can hire a tutor or study with friends for the next exam. This isn’t the end of the world.[Edit]Dealing with Post-Exam Stress
Don’t think about it. Easier said than done, of course, but, try to keep in mind that once the exam is over, you can’t go back and change anything about how it went. So, avoid asking your friends what they put for certain questions if you think that will just stress you out.[36] To avoid ruminating, or getting stuck in that “broken-record loop,” try the following tips:
Let go of the things you can’t control. Ask yourself, “what about my exam can I change at this point?” If it is nothing, do your best to let it go.[37]
View your mistakes as opportunities to learn. From this perspective, getting a exam question wrong isn’t something to be worried about.[38]
Try scheduling a worry break. Set aside 30 minutes and let all your worries out during that time. Think hard about the things you are stressed about. Then, once that 30 minutes is up, let it go.[39]
Exercise can also help you to get your mind off of your exam after it is done.[40]
Consult the wikiHow article Calm Post Exam Nerves for some more tips.
Take time off. Clear your mind from thinking about the exam by doing something you enjoy; try to pick an activity that you typically get lost in.
For example, if you get absorbed when you watch a movie or read a book, do that. If you get really into sports when you play them, get outside and play some sports!
Treat yourself. Eat some pizza or sushi or candy or buy yourself a new shirt; whatever treat you like that makes you happy for a few moments. Exams are very stressful but you made it through. Now relax a bit with something you enjoy then start preparing early for your next exam!
Treat it as a learning experience. You can learn from your mistakes; remember that ultimately the goal of an exam is to assess your level of knowledge on a topic. This helps you to identify your strengths and weaknesses regarding your course content.[41]
Instead of being stressed about this information, try to view it as an opportunity for an accurate assessment of your knowledge, which you can then use to improve yourself.
Remember that your performance on an exam is not indicative of your worth as a person. You can do poorly on an exam and still be a good student.[Edit]Video
[Edit]Tips
Do not try to compare yourself with others. Some students are naturally good at studying. Instead of competing with others, the best person to compete with is yourself.
If you are having trouble relaxing, consider searching common relaxation and meditation techniques. These can help manage exam stress as well as the stress of everyday life.[Edit]Related wikiHows
Overcome Exam Tension
Ace a Test
Cope With Difficult Homework or Exams
Cheat On a Test
Stay Calm During a Test[Edit]References
[Edit]Quick Summary↑ http://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/tips-for-everyday-living/student-life/coping-with-academic-work-and-exams/#.Vd47LCVViko

↑ http://www.simplypsychology.org/forgetting.html

↑ http://www.simplypsychology.org/forgetting.html

↑ http://web.csulb.edu/~jmiles/psy100/kelemen.pdf

↑ http://www.chapman.edu/students/academic-resources/tutoring-center/resources-success/study-strategies/note-taking/index.aspx

↑ http://www.studygs.net/timman.htm

↑ http://www.stressbusting.co.uk/how-to-deal-with-exam-stress/

↑ http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/water/art-20044256

↑ https://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/mental-health-information/improving-mh

↑ http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/caffeine/art-20045678

↑ http://kidshealth.org/teen/drug_alcohol/drugs/caffeine.html

↑ http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/exercise-and-stress/art-20044469?pg=2

↑ https://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/mental-health-information/improving-mh

↑ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18505314

↑ https://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/mental-health-information/improving-mh

↑ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1HsY1X8ySjKBMVXPVCbP4qH/exam-stress

↑ https://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/mental-health-information/improving-mh

↑ https://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/mental-health-information/improving-mh

↑ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18505314

↑ http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/sleep/art-20048379

↑ http://www.llu.edu/medicine/medical-student-education/resources/test-anxiety-tips.page

↑ http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/eating-exams

↑ http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/eating-exams

↑ http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/new-ways-students-cheat-on-tests/2011/09/28/gIQAPxFL6K_blog.html

↑ http://psychcentral.com/lib/beating-stress-through-nutrition/

↑ http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/caffeine/art-20045678?pg=2

↑ http://hub.jhu.edu/2014/01/12/caffeine-enhances-memory

↑ http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/topics/career/testanxiety.html

↑ http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/topics/career/testanxiety.html

↑ http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/topics/career/testanxiety.html

↑ http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/topics/career/testanxiety.html

↑ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1HsY1X8ySjKBMVXPVCbP4qH/exam-stress

↑ http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/topics/career/testanxiety.html

↑ https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/affective-forecasting

↑ http://www.mdaap.org/Bi_Ped_Challenging_Catastrophic_Thinking.pdf

↑ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1HsY1X8ySjKBMVXPVCbP4qH/exam-stress

↑ http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/02/16/8-tips-to-help-stop-ruminating/

↑ http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/02/16/8-tips-to-help-stop-ruminating/

↑ http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/02/16/8-tips-to-help-stop-ruminating/

↑ http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/02/16/8-tips-to-help-stop-ruminating/

↑ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1HsY1X8ySjKBMVXPVCbP4qH/exam-stress

Read More

Today in History for 5th March 2020

Historical Events

1046 – Persian scholar Naser Khosrow begins the 7 year Middle Eastern journey which he will later describe in his book Safarnama
1910 – Stanley Cup, Dey’s Arena, Ottawa, ON: Montreal Wanderers beat Ottawa Senators, 3-1
1956 – “King Kong” 1st televised
1966 – 11th Eurovision Song Contest: Udo Jurgens for Austria wins singing “Merci, Cherie” in Luxembourg
1977 – 24th ACC Men’s Basketball Tournament: North Carolina beats Virginia, 75-69
2012 – 27 members of Iraq’s security force are killed by gunmen disguised as police in Haditha

More Historical Events »

Famous Birthdays

1899 – Patrick Hadley, composer
1905 – Gilroy Roberts, US chief engraver (1948-64)
1918 – Halsey S Colchester, British SAS/spy (MI6)/priest
1920 – Virginia Christine [Ricketts], American actress (Mrs Olson, Tales of Wells Fargo), born in Stanton, Iowa (d. 1996)
1985 – Whitney Port, Cast member of The Hills TV series
1988 – Bjarni Viðarsson, Icelandic footballer

More Famous Birthdays »

Famous Deaths

1539 – Nuno da Cunha, Portuguese governor in India (b. 1487)
1732 – Joseph François Salomon, French composer, dies at 82
1829 – John Adams, last surviving HMS Bounty mutineer (b. 1766)
1873 – Marie-Alexis Castillon de Saint-Victor, French composer, dies at 34
1988 – Alberto Olmedo, Argentine comedian (b. 1933)
2000 – Lolo Ferrari [Eve Valois], French adult actress and dancer, dies from an overdose of prescription drugs at 37

More Famous Deaths »

Read More

How to Design a Small Garden

Even if you don’t have a large area in your yard, you can still make a beautiful garden that maximizes the space you have. Before you begin digging or planting, make sure you have a detailed plan for the layout of your garden and the plants you want to include. Look for plants that grow well in your area and are small enough to fit in your garden when they reach their full size. With the right plants, you’ll only have around 1 hour of weekly upkeep for your small garden.

[Edit]Steps
[Edit]Choosing the Best Location
Choose an area that gets 6–8 hours of sun daily. Since most flowering plants and vegetables require full sun to grow properly, opt for the sunniest area in your yard to place your garden. If the area doesn’t get a lot of light during the day, you may still be able to grow plants that thrive in the shade.[1]
Plants that don’t receive enough light won’t produce as many blooms or grow as well.
Pick a spot that’s close to a water source. Try to find an area that either has a natural water source or sits close to your outdoor hose attachment. That way, the soil will stay moist and make it less likely to dry out and kill your plants. If you aren’t able to place your garden directly by a water source, make sure it’s as close as possible.[2]
You can also try building an artificial pond or water feature if you want to help keep the soil hydrated.
Opt for a place where you can easily access your garden. Look for a place in your yard where you can see your garden from a window or a spot in your yard so you’re able to enjoy it. Make sure you can walk into your garden with ease to make it easier to take care of your plants. Avoid placing it anywhere that’s difficult to get to, or else it may become more of a hassle.[3]
Measure the space you have available for your garden. Stretch a measuring tape across the length of the area, and record the measurement on a piece of paper. Then take the measurement for the width of the area. Double-check your measurements to make sure they’re accurate so you can plan the space efficiently.[4]
Typically, plots grow best in rectangular areas, but you can make your garden a different shape, such as a triangle or circle, if it fits the space better.[Edit]Following Design Principles
Plan the layout for your garden to scale on a piece of graph paper. Draw the outline on the paper so each grid square equals . Start by sketching longer rectangles for your garden beds so they’re to scale for the actual size you want them. Then divide the rectangles into smaller sections for each different plant you want to put in them, assuming that 1–2 plants usually take up . Be sure to leave a space between garden beds so you can easily walk between them and care for your plants.[5]
For example, if you want a garden bed that’s and each square on the graph paper equals , then you would draw a rectangle that’s 3 squares tall by 8 squares long. This bed would leave enough room for 24–48 plants.
Work in pencil so you can erase and make changes to the design easily.
Look online for digital garden planners to help you design the layout.
Use square-foot gardening for the most compact growing system. Make a grid on your design so each square is . Make a list of the plants you want to grow and label each square on the grid with one of the plants from your list. Make sure you know the final growing sizes so you can easily manage how many plants of a species you’ll be able to grow in the square.[6]
Typically, you can fit 1–2 individual plants of a species in area, but you may be able to plant more if they’re small growths. Talk to an employee at a gardening center since they can help you choose plants that will work the best.
Arrange your design so there are focal points. Aim to have 1–2 aspects of your garden design unique so they stand out from the rest of your plants. This could be a statue, fountain, or small tree placed in the center or on either side. Take into consideration where you want people to focus or have their attention drawn to when they look at your garden, and plan your design around those spots.[7]
Focal points help your garden feel more inviting and make them more visually pleasing.
Paths in your garden can also help draw people’s eyes in certain directions to help then flow visually.
Put similar plants across from one another to create rhythm and symmetry. Rather than putting different plants in each of your garden beds, opt for using the same plant or ones that have similar textures or colors so they’re across from one another. That way, when you look at your garden, it will look inviting and make the area feel more balanced. Make sure the plants on each side of your garden have approximately the same sizes, or your garden design may look messy or unbalanced.[8]
Make the edge height ⅓ of the horizontal length to help it feel enclosed. Making your garden feel enclosed will make you feel more comfortable while you’re working in your garden. Measure the horizontal length of the garden area and opt for plants or design features that are at least a third of that length in your design.[9]
For example, if you have a garden that’s long, aim to have plants that reach up to around the edges
Include room for seating in your design if you want a place to relax. Look online or at gardening stores to find outdoor seating that fits your space and matches your style. Draw the seating in your design, and make sure you have paths that lead to it. You can place the seating directly in the grass, or you can set it on tiles or pavers for a flat, even surface.[10]
Avoid using furniture made for indoor use since it could easily develop mold or get dirty from the weather.
You don’t need to include seating in your garden if you don’t have the space.[Edit]Selecting Your Plants
Opt for raised beds that are deep for better soil. Look for raised beds or containers that are around wide and deep so the plant roots have room to grow. Avoid getting beds any wider since it can make it more difficult to care for and harvest your plants. If possible, orient the beds so they run from north to south to allow your plants to get the most amount of light during the day.[11]
Raised beds are easier to manage since you can more easily control the soil and nutrients inside the container.
If you don’t want to use raised beds, you can still plant in rows directly in the ground.
Build the planting beds if you aren’t able to find preconstructed ones in the sizes you need.
Mix ornamental and edible plants together in your garden. Try to include at least 1–2 types of flowering ornamental plants in each of your garden beds where you plan on growing vegetables. Opt for plants that have different leaf shapes and a variety of blooms to make your garden look visually interesting. Talk to the employees at a local gardening center to find out what plants are the most compatible so they don’t compete for nutrients.[12]
Some ornamental plants you can use in your garden include hostas, hibiscus, allium, salvia, lavender, and sedum.[13]
Flowering ornamental plants also attract beneficial insects that kill other pests and help pollinate.
You don’t need to include vegetables in your garden if you only want ornamental or flowering plants.
Choose compact varieties of plants to maximize the space. If you like the look of larger plants and want to grow them, check your local gardening center to see if they have compact versions of them. Check the final growing size on the packaging to make sure they’ll still properly fit in your garden beds at the end of the season. Include the plants in your garden design drawing so you see how much space they’ll take up.[14]
The most common vegetables that have compact varieties are cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, and squash, but you may be able to find others.
Avoid planting anything melons or fruit trees, since they can be difficult to control and can steal nutrients from other plants.
Use companion planting to reduce competition for nutrients and manage pests. Talk to an employee at a gardening center or look online about the plants you want to grow and what pairs well with them. Try to position smaller plants in between larger ones so you can make the most of the growing space. Make sure the plants you select are compatible with one another, or else they may not grow to their full potential.[15]
Include a fence or trellis to help plants grow vertically. Try to put the trellis or fence along the north side of your garden so plants growing on it can get the most light throughout the day. Aim to have a tall trellis to help it support the most growth.[16] Avoid placing a trellis or fence where it casts shade on other plants, or else you could make them grow less efficiently.[17]
Trellises and fences work well for plants vine-like plants, such as peas, beans, squashes, and tomatoes.
You may also attach shelves or containers directly to a fence if you want to grow flowering plants off of the ground.
Try succession planting if you want a large variety of vegetation. Look for plants that stop blooming or are ready to harvest in the middle of the growing season. Then choose varieties of plants that thrive in the latter half of the growing season to replace the plants that grew earlier. That way, your garden will always produce fresh vegetables or blooms throughout the entire year.[18]
For example, you can plant radishes or lettuce in the spring to harvest in the late summer. Then you may grow summer squash in the same location to harvest in the fall.[19][Edit]Tending Your Garden
Mulch between your plants to help the soil retain water. Aim to have a layer of organic mulch, such as wood chips, leaves, or peat moss. Spread the mulch evenly across your garden so it’s about away from any of your plants’ stems. Reapply mulch throughout the season if you notice it getting thin.[20]
Mulch also prevents weeds from growing in your garden beds.
Water the soil when it feels dry below the surface. Dig a hole in the soil that’s deep and touch it with your finger. If it feels dry, use a watering can or a hose to water the soil until it’s wet deep. Check the soil daily to make sure it doesn’t dry out and kill your plants.[21]
Plants in containers or raised beds usually need to be watered more often than those directly planted in the ground.
Apply fertilizer in the beginning and middle of the growing season. You can either use liquid fertilizer or buy granules that soak into the soil. Apply half of the fertilizer amount on the soil near your plants and spread it evenly throughout the garden bed. Immediately water the soil so the fertilizer can soak in and give nutrients to your plants.[22]
Be careful not to get any fertilizer directly on your plants since you could damage them.
Pull weeds out by hand when you see them growing. Check your garden beds weekly for weeds growing between your plants. Grab the weeds as close to the soil as you can and pull them straight out of the ground. If you don’t want to pull them by hand, use a hoe or trowel to dig out the roots and remove them from your garden.[23]
Avoid leaving the weed’s roots in the soil since they could grow back.
Prune plants to control their sizes. Begin pruning at the start of the season to help promote new growth, and in the middle of the season to help keep your garden looking clean. Remove any stems or branches that have damage or look leggy with a pair of hand pruners. Make cuts at a 45-degree angle to help reduce the chance of rot.[24]
Don’t cut off any more than a third of the vegetation, or else the plant may not grow back as easily.[Edit]Tips
Get inspiration for designs and layouts from gardening magazines.
Go to a local gardening store to ask about plants that work well together and find new additions to add to your garden.[Edit]Things You’ll Need
Tape measure
Graph paper
Raised garden beds
Fencing or trellis
Outdoor seating (optional)
Watering can or hose
Mulch
Fertilizer
Hand pruners[Edit]References↑ https://www.bobvila.com/articles/2500-how-to-plant-a-vegetable-garden/

↑ https://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=C1027-11&title=Sources%20of%20Water%20for%20the%20Garden

↑ https://www.gardeners.com/how-to/garden-design-basics/5165.html

↑ https://agrilifeextension.tamu.edu/library/gardening/planning-a-garden/

↑ https://agrilifeextension.tamu.edu/library/gardening/planning-a-garden/

↑ https://www.almanac.com/video/planning-square-foot-garden

↑ https://www.gardeners.com/how-to/garden-design-basics/5165.html

↑ https://www.gardeners.com/how-to/garden-design-basics/5165.html

↑ https://www.gardendesign.com/landscape-design/rules.html

↑ https://youtu.be/U-iyod0unLM?t=312

↑ https://www.almanac.com/content/how-build-raised-garden-bed

↑ https://youtu.be/U-iyod0unLM?t=128

↑ http://www.perennialresource.com/photo_essay.php?ID=292

↑ https://www.gardeningchannel.com/small-vegetable-garden-layout-ideas/

↑ https://www.almanac.com/content/raised-bed-gardens-and-small-plots

↑ https://extension.umn.edu/planting-and-growing-guides/trellises-and-cages#stakes-821161

↑ https://www.almanac.com/content/small-vegetable-garden-plans-and-layouts#

↑ https://www.almanac.com/content/small-vegetable-garden-plans-and-layouts#

↑ https://www.gardeningchannel.com/small-vegetable-garden-layout-ideas/

↑ https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/caring-your-garden

↑ https://garden.org/learn/articles/view/1284/

↑ https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/caring-your-garden

↑ https://garden.org/learn/articles/view/1284/

↑ https://www.thisoldhouse.com/ideas/shrub-pruning-dos-and-donts

Read More