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1800

Related subjects Years

Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century
Decades: 1770s  1780s  1790s  - 1800s -   1810s   1820s   1830s
Years: 1797 1798 1799 - 1800 - 1801 1802 1803
Napoleon crosses the Alps.
Napoleon crosses the Alps.

Year 1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, February 28 [ O.S. February 17, 1800] 1800, but 12 days ahead since Saturday, March 1 [ O.S. February 18, 1800] 1800.

Events of 1800

  • World population was nearing 1 billion people, at 978 million. The 1 billion milestone will not be accomplished until 2 years later, in 1802. The population distribution by region:

January - March

  • February - Foundation of the Bank of France
  • March 14 - Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti succeeds Pius VI as Pius VII, the 251st pope.
  • March 20 - Alessandro Volta describes his new invention, the voltaic pile, the first chemical battery, in a letter to the Royal Society.

April - June

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
  • April - Voting begins in the United States presidential election, 1800; it will last until October. The result is not announced until February of 1801.
  • April 24 - U.S. Library of Congress founded.
  • May 5 - Great Britain passes the Act of Union to join Great Britain and Ireland into the United Kingdom to take effect on 1 January 1801. The act is signed by King George III in August.
  • May 15 - Napoleon Bonaparte crosses the Alps and invades Italy.
  • June 2 - First smallpox vaccination in North America, at Trinity, Newfoundland.
  • June 14 - Battle of Marengo, Napoleon defeats the Austrian troops near Marengo, Italy.

July - September

  • September 5 - At the invitation of the Maltese, British troops liberate the Islands of Malta and Gozo from the French.
  • September 20 - Treaty of Mortefontaine signed between France, Britain, and the United States of America, ending the Quasi-War.
  • September 30 - Convention of 1800 is signed.

October - December

  • November 1
    • U.S. President John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion (later renamed the White House).
    • Middlebury College is granted its charter by the Vermont General Assembly
  • November 17 - The U.S. Congress holds its first Washington, D.C. session.
  • December 3 - Battle of Hohenlinden, the French army defeats the German troops.
  • December 24
    • An assault on Napoleon Bonaparte fails in Paris.
    • Pierre Coudrin and Henriette Aymer de la Chevalerie found the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary in Paris.

Undated

  • The infrared radiation is discovered by William Herschel.
  • Electrolysis of water is discovered by Anthony Carlisle and William Nicholson by passing a voltaic current through water, generating hydrogen and oxygen.
  • The Althing of Iceland, the world's oldest parliament, is abolished.
  • Downing College, Cambridge is founded after a legal action in the Court of Chancery to enforce the will of Sir George Browning, 3rd Baronet.

Ongoing events

Births

1800 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1800
MDCCC
Ab urbe condita 2553
Armenian calendar 1249
ԹՎ ՌՄԽԹ
Bahá'í calendar -44 – -43
Berber calendar 2750
Buddhist calendar 2344
Burmese calendar 1162
Chinese calendar 4436/4496-12-7
( 己未年十二月初七日)
— to —
4437/4497-11-16
( 庚申年十一月十六日)
Coptic calendar 1516 – 1517
Ethiopian calendar 1792 – 1793
Hebrew calendar 5560 – 5561
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1855 – 1856
 - Shaka Samvat 1722 – 1723
 - Kali Yuga 4901 – 4902
Holocene calendar 11800
Iranian calendar 1178 – 1179
Islamic calendar 1214 – 1215
Japanese calendar Kansei 12
(寛政12年)
Korean calendar 4133
Thai solar calendar 2343

January-June

  • January 1 - Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere (died 1857)
  • January 6 - Anna Maria Hall, Irish writer (died 1889)
  • January 7 - Millard Fillmore, 13th President of the United States (died 1874)
  • January 11 - Anyos Jedlik, Hungarian physicist, the inventor of the Dynamo (1895)
  • January 12 - George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, English diplomat and statesman (died 1870)
  • January 14 - Ludwig von Köchel, Austrian musicologist (died 1877)
  • January 17 - Caleb Cushing, American statesman and diplomat (died 1879)
  • January 24 - Edwin Chadwick, English social reformer (died 1890 or did he?)
  • January 26
    • Johann Gerhard Oncken, German Baptist preacher (died 1884)
    • Elizabeth Ann Whitney, Mormon leader (died 1882)
  • January 27 - John Evelyn Denison, 1st Viscount Ossington, English statesman (died 1875)
  • February 1 - Brian Houghton Hodgson, English civil servant (died 1894)
  • felix mendelson
  • February 6 - Achille Devéria, French painter and lithographer (died 1857)
  • February 9
    • Hyrum Smith, American religious leader (died 1844)
    • Joseph von Führich, Austrian painter (died 1876)
  • February 11 - William Fox Talbot, English photographic pioneer (died 1877)
  • February 12 - John Edward Gray, British zoologist (died 1875)
  • February 23 - William Jardine, Scottish naturalist (died 1874)
  • February 26
    • Lucius Lyon, U.S. statesman (died 1851)
    • John Baptist Purcell, U.S. (Irish-born) archbishop (died 1883)
  • March 2 - Evgeny Baratynsky, Russian poet (died 1844)
  • March 3 - Heinrich Georg Bronn, German geologist and paleontologist (died 1862)
  • March 4 - William Price, British physician and eccentric (died 1893)
    • Victor Aimé Huber, German social reformer (died 1869)
    • George Hudson, English railway financier (died 1871)
  • March 12 - Louis Prosper Gachard, Belgian man of letters (died 1885)
  • March 13 - Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha, Turkish statesman and diplomat
  • March 16 - Emperor Ninko of Japan (died 1846)
  • March 17 - Rudolf Ewald Stier, German Protestant churchman and mystic (died 1862)
  • March 20 - Gottfried Bernhardy, German philologist and literary historian (died 1875)
  • March 25
    • Alexis Paulin Paris, French scholar and author (died 1881)
    • Ernst Heinrich Karl von Dechen, German geologist and mineralogist (died 1889)
  • March 28 - Johann Georg Wagler, German herpetologist (died 1832)
  • April 2 - Andrzej Artur Zamoyski, Polish nobleman (died 1874)
  • April 4 - Tokugawa Nariaki, Japanese daimyo of Mito (died 1860)
  • April 15 - James Clark Ross, British naval officer and explorer (died 1862)
  • April 16
    • Jakob Heine, German orthopaedist (died 1879)
    • George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan, British soldier (died 1888)
  • April 29 - Hiram Cronk, last surviving veteran of the War of 1812 (died 1705)
  • May 1 - James Black, creator of the original Bowie knife (died 1870)
  • May 5 - Louis Christophe François Hachette, French publisher (died 1864)
  • May 6 - Roman Sanguszko, Polish noble (died 1881)
  • May 8 - Armand Carrel, French writer (died 1836)
  • May 9
    • John Brown, American abolitionist (died 1859)
    • Samuel Carter Hall, English journalist (died 1889)
  • May 30 - Karl Wilhelm Feuerbach, German geometer (died 1827)
  • June 1 - Charles Fremantle, Royal Navy officer (died 1869)
  • June 2 - Nicholas P. Trist, secretary to Andrew Jackson (died 1874)
  • June 3 - Gustaw Potworowski, Polish activist (died 1860)
  • June 17 - William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, Irish astronomer (died 1867)
  • June 23 - Karol Marcinkowski, Polish physician and social activist (died 1846)
  • June 30 - Richard Bethell, 1st Baron Westbury, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (died 1873)

July - December

  • July 14 - Jean-Baptiste Dumas, French chemist (died 1884)
  • July 19 - Juan José Flores, first president of Ecuador (died 1864)
  • July 22
    • Jakob Lorber, German Christian mystic (died 1864)
    • Robert McCormick, British Royal Navy surgeon (died 1890)
  • July 31
    • Robert L. Caruthers, Confederate governor of Tennessee (died 1882)
    • Friedrich Wöhler, German chemist (died 1882)
  • August 4 - Hercules L. Dousman, American trader and financier (died 1868)
  • August 5 - Ramón María Narváez y Campos, 1st Duke of Valencia, Spanish soldier and statesman (died 1868)
  • August 10 - Otto August Rosenberger, German astronomer (died 1890)
  • August 12
    • Jean-Jacques Ampère, French philologist (died 1864)
    • Ugo Bassi, Italian patriot (died 1849)
  • August 13 - Ippolito Rosellini, Italian Egyptologist (died 1843)
  • August 19
    • Buckner Stith Morris, mayor of Chicago (died 1879)
    • James Lenox, American bibliophile and philanthropist (died 1880)
  • August 21 - Hiram Walden, American politician (died 1880)
  • August 22
    • Edward Barron Chandler, American politician (died 1880)
    • William S. Harney, U.S. general (died 1889)
    • Edward Bouverie Pusey, English churchman (died 1882)
  • August 25 - Karl Hase, German Protestant theologian and Church historian (died 1890)
  • September 6 - Catharine Beecher, American educator (died 1878)
  • September 11 - Daniel S. Dickinson, Confederate admiral (died 1866)
  • September 12
    • Pierre Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant, leading French chess master (died 1872)
    • William Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, 5th Duke of Portland (died 1879)
  • September 13
    • Franklin Buchanan, officer in the U.S. Navy who became an admiral in the Confederate Navy during the American Civil War (died 1874)
    • David Stewart, American politician (died 1858)
  • September 15 - Paul Friedrich, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (died 1842)
  • September 19 - William McKean, admiral in the United States Navy (died 1865)
  • September 20
    • John Pascoe Grenfell, British admiral of the Brazilian Navy (died 1869)
    • Benjamin Franklin White, American singing master (died 1879)
  • September 22
    • George Bentham, English botanist (died 1884)
    • Thomas Holloway, English pharmacist and philanthropist (died 1883)
  • September 23 - William Holmes McGuffey, American professor who created the McGuffey Readers (died 1873)
  • September 30 - Decimus Burton, prolific English architect and garden designer (died 1881)
  • October 1 - Lars Levi Laestadius, Swedish Lutheran pastor of Sami ancestry (died 1861)
  • October 2 - Nat Turner, American slave rebel (died 1831)
  • October 3 - George Bancroft, American historian and statesman (died 1891)
  • October 8 - Jules Desnoyers, French geologist and archaeologist (died 1887)
  • October 18 - Henry Taylor, English dramatist (died 1886)
  • October 22 - Christian Lassen, German orientalist (died 1876)
  • October 23 - Henri Milne-Edwards, French zoologist (died 1885)
  • October 25
    • Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, British poet (died 1859)
    • Jacques Paul Migne, French priest, theologian, and publisher (died 1875)
  • October 26 - Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, German field marshal (died 1891)
  • October 27 - Benjamin Wade, U.S. lawyer and politician (died 1878)
  • November 4
    • Edwin Waller, American entrepreneur (died 1881)
    • George Long, English classical scholar (died 1879)
  • November 17 - Achille Fould, French financier and politician (died 1867)
  • November 18 - John Nelson Darby, British evangelist (died 1882)
  • November 22 - Linn Boyd, U.S. politician (died 1859)
  • December 1 - Mihály Vörösmarty, Hungarian poet (died 1855)
  • December 3 - France Prešeren, Slovenian poet (died 1849)
  • December 4
    • Emil Aarestrup, Danish erotic poet (died 1856)
    • William Fenwick Williams, British military (died 1883)
  • December 5 - Thomas Ford, governor of Illinois (died 1850)
  • December 7 - Giuseppe Gené, Italian naturalist and author (died 1847)
  • December 20 - Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax, English statesman (died 1885)
  • December 25 - John Phillips, English geologist (died 1874)
  • December 27 - John Goss, English organist and composer (died 1880)
  • December 29 - Charles Goodyear, American rubber magnate (died 1860)
  • date unknown
    • Elias Boudinot, Cherokee who started and edited the tribe's first newspaper (died 1839)
    • John McLeod Campbell, Scottish churchman (died 1872)
    • Martín Perfecto de Cos, Mexican general (died 1854)
    • James Glynn, United States Navy officer (died 1871)
    • Edwin Guest, English antiquary (died 1880)
    • Frederick Yeates Hurlstone, English painter (died 1869)
    • Thomas Henry Lister, English novelist (died 1842)
    • William Simson, Scottish painter (died 1847)
    • Harriet Smithson, Irish actress (died 1854)
    • Jacob Westervelt, American shipbuilder and mayor of New York (died 1856)
  • probable
    • Richard Lawrence, attempted assassin of Andrew Jackson (died 1861)
    • William Nicholson, officer in the United States Navy (died 1872)

Deaths

January-June

  • January 1 - Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton,
  • January 6
    • William Jones, English divine (born 1726)
    • Friedrich Adolf Riedesel, German soldier (born 1738)
  • January 9 - Jean Étienne Championnet, French general (born 1762)
  • January 13 - Dempsey Burges, Republican U.S. Congressman (born 1751)
  • January 20 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President of the United States in Congress assembled under the Articles of Confederation (born 1744)
  • January 22 - George Steevens, English Shakespearean commentator (born 1736)
  • January 23 - Edward Rutledge, U.S. statesman (born 1749)
  • February 2 - James C. Jarvis, United States Navy officer (born 1787)
  • February 23 - Joseph Warton, English academic and literary critic (born 1722)
  • March - Joseph de Guignes, French orientalist (born 1721)
  • March 1 - John Hazelwood, officer in the Continental Navy (born 1726)
  • March 14 - Daines Barrington, English naturalist (born 1727)
  • March 21 - William Blount, U.S. statesman (born 1749)
  • March 29 - Marc René, marquis de Montalembert, French military engineer and writer (born 1714)
  • April 13 - Kazimierz Poniatowski, Polish nobleman (born 1721)
  • April 25
    • Ezekiel Cornell, Continental Congressman from Rhode Island (born 1732)
    • William Cowper, English poet (born 1731)
  • May 4 - Armand, duc d'Aiguillon (born 1750)
  • May 7 - Niccola Piccinni, Italian composer (born 1728)
  • May 18 - Alexander Suvorov, Count of Rymnik (born 1729)
  • June 14
    • Louis Charles Antoine Desaix, French military leader (killed in battle) (born 1768)
    • Jean Baptiste Kléber, French general (assassinated) (born 1753)
  • June 20 - Abraham Gotthelf Kästner, German mathematician (born 1719)
  • June 24 - Charles Stewart, American revolutionary (born 1729)
  • June 28 - Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne, Grenadier officer in the French army (born 1743)
  • June 30 - Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney, British politician (born 1732)

July-December

  • July 14 - Lorenzo Mascheroni, Italian mathematician (born 1750)
  • July 18 - John Rutledge, governor of South Carolina (born 1739)
  • August 24 - Rawlins Lowndes, American lawyer and jurist (born 1721)
  • August 25 - Elizabeth Montagu, English literary critic (born 1720)
  • August 31 - John Blair, American politician (born 1732)
  • September 2 - Maciej Radziwiłł, Polish nobleman (born 1749)
  • September 26 - William Billings, American choral composer (born 1746)
  • September 27 - William Gibbons, American lawyer and revolutionary (born 1726)
  • September 29 - Michael Denis, Austrian poet (born 1729)
  • October 4 - Johann Hermann, German physician and naturalist (born 1738)
  • October 10 - Gabriel Prosser,
  • October 16 - Benjamin Huntington, American lawyer and politician (born 1736)
  • October 28 - Artemas Ward, American Major General in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts (born 1727)
  • November 5 - Jesse Ramsden, English astronomical instrument maker (born 1735)
  • November 14 - François Claude Amour, marquis de Bouillé, French general (born 1739)
  • November 30 - Matthew Robinson, 2nd Baron Rokeby, English eccentric nobleman (born 1712)
  • December 7 - Wilhelm von Knyphausen, Hessian Lieutenant-General (born 1716)
  • December 17 - William Peery, American farmer and lawyer (born 1743)
  • December 26 - Mary Robinson, English poet (born 1756)
  • December 27 - Hugh Blair, Scottish Presbyterian preacher and man of letters (born 1718)
  • date unknown
    • Jean-Baptiste Audebert, French artist and naturalist
    • Samuel Barrington, British admiral (born 1729)
    • Thomas Conway, Irish soldier (born 1734)
    • Henry Cort, English ironmaster
    • George Dixon, English sea captain and explorer (born 1755)
    • Charles Johnstone, Irish writer (born 1719)
    • Aleksander August Zamoyski, Polish nobleman