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1878

Related subjects Years

Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century
Decades: 1840s  1850s  1860s  - 1870s -   1880s   1890s   1700s
Years: 1875 1876 1877 - 1878 - 1879 1880 1881

Year 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).

Events of 1878

January - March

January - Cleopatra's Needle.
January - Cleopatra's Needle.
  • January - Cleopatra's Needle arrives in London
  • January 9 - Humbert I becomes King of Italy
  • January 5 - Battle of Shipka Pass IV
  • January 17 - Battle of Plovdiv
  • January 23 - Benjamin Disraeli orders British fleet to the Dardanelles
  • January 24 - The revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, the Governor of Saint Petersburg.
  • January 28 - The Yale News becomes the first daily, college newspaper in the United States.
  • January 31 - Turkey agrees to armistice at Adrianople
  • February 2 - Greece declares war on Turkey.
  • February 8 - British fleet enters Turkish waters and anchors off Istanbul - Russia threatens to occupy Istanbul but does not carry out the threat
  • February 18 - The Lincoln County War begins in Lincoln County, New Mexico
  • February 19 - The phonograph is patented by Thomas Edison
  • February 20 - Pope Leo XIII succeeds Pope Pius IX as the 256th pope.
  • February 24 - Anti-Russian demonstrations in Hyde Park, London
  • February 28 - Mississippi State University is created by the Mississippi Legislature (under the name The Agricultural and Mechanical College of the State of Mississippi)
  • March 3
    • Bulgaria regained its independence from Ottoman Empire.
    • The Treaty of San Stefano concludes the Russo-Turkish War
  • March 24 - The UK frigate Eurydice sinks, killing 300.
  • March 25 - Russia rejects British proposal to lay San Stefano treaty before European congress
  • March 27 - In anticipation with war with Russia, Disraeli mobilizes the reserves and calls up Indian troops to Malta

April - June

  • April 20 - The Stawell Gift is run for the first time.
  • May 15 - Tokyo Stock Exchange established
  • June 4 - Cyprus Convention: The Ottoman Empire cedes Cyprus to the United Kingdom but retains nominal title.
  • June 10 - League of Prizren is established
  • June 12 - July 12 - Congress of Berlin about the Ottoman Empire
  • June 22 - Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld leaves Karlskrona on a voyage that will make him the first to navigate the Northern Sea Route, a shipping lane from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean along the Siberian coast.

July - September

  • July 13 - The Treaty of Berlin makes Serbia, Montenegro and Romania completely independent
  • July 26 - In California, the poet and American West outlaw calling himself " Black Bart" makes his last clean getaway when he steals a safe box from a Wells Fargo stagecoach. The empty box will be found later with a taunting poem inside.
  • September 3 - Over 640 die when the crowded pleasure boat Princess Alice collides with the Bywell Castle in the River Thames.
  • September 20 - The Hindu, an Indian newspaper, is founded.
  • September 30 - The ship Priscilla arrives in Hawaii from Funchal, Madeira, marking the beginning of the Portuguese immigration to the Hawaiian Islands (1878-1913).

October - December

  • October 1 - Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) opens as Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College.
  • October 14 - The world's first recorded floodlit football fixture is played at Bramall Lane in Sheffield
  • October 17 - John A. Macdonald returns to office as Prime Minister of Canada.
  • November 17 - First assassination attempt against Umberto I of Italy.
  • November 21 - Second Afghan War commences when the British attack Ali Masjid in the Khyber Pass.

Undated

Foundations:

  • The Buchan School, Isle of Man.
  • Newton Heath Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Football Club, the team that would become Manchester United
  • Everton Football Club, then known as St Domingo
  • Yellow fever in Mississippi Valley - over 13,000 dead
  • US arbitration rejects Argentinean claims to Paraguay's part of Chaco region
  • West Bromwich Albion F.C. play their first match.
  • Grimsby Town FC then known as Grimsby Pelham

Births

1878 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1878
MDCCCLXXVIII
Ab urbe condita 2631
Armenian calendar 1327
ԹՎ ՌՅԻԷ
Bahá'í calendar 34 – 35
Berber calendar 2828
Buddhist calendar 2422
Burmese calendar 1240
Chinese calendar 4514/4574-11-28
( 丁丑年十一月廿八日)
— to —
4515/4575-12-8
( 戊寅年十二月初八日)
Coptic calendar 1594 – 1595
Ethiopian calendar 1870 – 1871
Hebrew calendar 5638 – 5639
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1933 – 1934
 - Shaka Samvat 1800 – 1801
 - Kali Yuga 4979 – 4980
Holocene calendar 11878
Iranian calendar 1256 – 1257
Islamic calendar 1294 – 1296
Japanese calendar Meiji 11
(明治11年)
Korean calendar 4211
Thai solar calendar 2421

January - June

  • January 6 - Carl Sandburg, American poet and historian (d. 1967)
  • January 12 - Ferenc Molnár, author (d. 1952)
  • January 25 - Ernst Alexanderson, Swedish-born television pioneer (d. 1975)
  • February 1 - Milan Hodža, Slovak politician, champion of regional integration in Europe (d. 1944)
  • February 2 - Alfréd Hajós, Hungarian swimmer and architect (d. 1955)
  • February 5 - André Citroën, French automobile manufacturer (d. 1935)
  • February 8 - Martin Buber, Austrian philosopher (d. 1965)
  • February 14 - Hirota Koki, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1948)
  • February 21 - The Mother (Mirra Alfassa), multi-origined spiritual leader and founder of Auroville in India (d. 1973)
  • February 26 - Emmy Destinn, Czech soprano (d. 1930)
  • February 28 - Pierre Fatou, French mathematician (d. 1929)
  • March 4
    • Egbert Van Alstyne, United States songwriter and pianist (d. 1951)
    • Peter D. Ouspensky, Russian philosopher (d. 1947)
    • Arishima Takeo, Japanese novelist, short-story writer and essayist (d. 1923)
  • March 16 - Clemens August Graf von Galen, German Catholic cardinal (d. 1946)
  • March 22 - Michel Théato, Luxembourg athlete (d. 1919)
  • March 31 - Jack Johnson, American boxer (d. 1946)
  • April 6 - Erich Mühsam, German author (d. 1934)
  • April 24 - Jean Crotti, Swiss artist (d. 1958)
  • April 28
    • Lionel Barrymore, American actor (d. 1954)
    • Willem Mengelberg, Dutch conductor (d. 1951)
  • May 3 - Cruz Hernandez, Oldest Living Person (disputed) (d. 2007)
  • May 10 - Gustav Stresemann, Chancellor of Germany, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1929)
  • May 25 - Bill Robinson, Tap Dancer (d. 1949)
  • May 26 - Isadora Duncan, American dancer (d. 1927)
  • May 28 - Paul Pelliot, French sinologist (d. 1945)
  • June 1 - John Masefield, English poet and novelist (d. 1967)
  • June 3 - Barney Oldfield, American automobile racer and pioneer (d. 1946)
  • June 5 - Pancho Villa, Mexican revolutionary (d. 1923)

July - December

  • July 4 - George M. Cohan, American singer, dancer, composer, actor, and writer (d. 1942)
  • July 24 - Edward Plunkett, Baron Dunsany, Irish author (d. 1957)
  • August 10 - Alfred Döblin, German writer (d. 1957)
  • August 28 - George Whipple, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1976)
  • August 31 - Frank Jarvis, American athlete (d. 1933)
  • September 5 - Robert von Lieben, Austrian physicist (d. 1913)
  • September 13 - Matilde Moisant, American pilot (d. 1964)
  • September 20 - Upton Sinclair, American writer (d. 1968)
  • September 22 - Yoshida Shigeru, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1967)
  • September 24 - C. F. Ramuz, Swiss writer (d. 1947)
  • October 1 - Othmar Spann, Austrian philosopher and economist (d. 1950)
  • October 16 - Maxey Long, American athlete (d. 1959)
  • November 1 - Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Argentine politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1959)
  • November 14 - Leopold Staff, Polish poet (d. 1957)
    • Julie Manet - French painter (d. 1966)
  • November 17 - Grace Abbott, American social worker and activist (d. 1939)
  • December 18 - Joseph Stalin, Soviet leader (d. 1953)
  • December 25
    • Louis Chevrolet, Swiss-born race driver and automobile builder (d. 1941)
    • Joseph Schenck, Russian-born film executive (d. 1961)
  • December 28 - Nikolai Bryukhanov, Soviet statesman and political figure who served as People's Commissar of Finances (d.1938)
  • December 31 - Elizabeth Arden, Canadian-born beautician and cosmetics entrepreneur (d. 1966)
  • December 31 - Horacio Quiroga, Argentina's writer was born in Salto, Uruguay (d. 1937)

Deaths

January - June

  • January 8 - Nikolay Nekrasov, Russian poet (b. 1821)
  • January 9 - King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy (b. 1820)
  • January 18 - Antoine César Becquerel, French scientist (b. 1788)
  • February 7 - Pope Pius IX (b. 1792)
  • February 11 - Gideon Welles, American politician (b. 1802)
  • February 19 - Charles-Francois Daubigny, French painter (b. 1817)
  • February 26 - Angelo Secchi, Italian astronomer (b. 1818)
  • March 8 - Archduke Franz Karl of Austria (b. 1802)
  • April 8 - Henrietta Treffz, soprano, first wife of Johann Strauss II (b. 1818)
  • April 12 - William Marcy Tweed, American politician (b. 1823)
  • April 25 - Anna Sewell, English author (b. 1820)
  • May 28 - John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1792)
  • June 6
    • Robert Stirling, Scottish clergyman and inventor (b. 1790)
    • Achille Baraguey d'Hilliers, Marshal of France (b. 1795)
    • Porter Rockwell, Mormon bodyguard (b. 1815)
  • June 12
    • George V of Hanover (b. 1819)
    • Hendrik Jut, murderer (b. 1851)

July - December

  • July 1 - Catherine Winkworth, translator of hymns (b. 1827)
  • July 17 - Aleardo Aleardi, Italian poet (b. 1812)
  • July 23 - Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Bohemian pathologist, philosopher and politician (b. 1804)
  • August 30 - James Geiss, English businessman (b. 1820)
  • November 16 - Princess Marie of Hesse dies aged for of diptheria. A disease which at the time the majority of her family suffered, and which her mother Alice of the United Kingdom succumbed to a month later.
  • November 20 - William Thomas (Islwyn), Welsh poet (b. 1832)
  • November 28 - Orson Hyde, American religious leader (b. 1805)
  • December 10 - Henry Wells, American businessman (b. 1805)
  • December 14 - Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine (b. 1843)