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1881

Related subjects Years

Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century
Decades: 1850s  1860s  1870s  - 1880s -   1890s   1700s   1910s
Years: 1878 1879 1880 - 1881 - 1882 1883 1884

Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).

Events of 1881

January - March

  • January 16- January 24 - Siege of Geok Tepe - Russian troops under general Skobeleff defeat Turkomans.
  • January 24 - William Edward Forster, the chief secretary for Ireland, introduces his Coercion Bill: it goes through a long debate before it is accepted February 2.
  • January 25 - Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company.
  • February 2 - Parkfield Earthquake occurs.
  • February 5 - Phoenix, Arizona is incorporated.
  • February 13 - First issue of the feminist newspaper La Citoyenne is published by Hubertine Auclert.
  • February 19 - Kansas became the first U.S. state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages.
  • March 12 - Andrew Watson makes his Scotland debut as the world's first black international football player.
  • March 13 - Alexander II of Russia is killed near his palace when a bomb is thrown at him. He is succeeded by his son, Alexander III.

April - June

  • April 14 - Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight erupted in El Paso, Texas.
  • April 15 - Temuco, Chile founded.
  • April 21 - The University of Connecticut is founded as the Storrs Agricultural School.
  • April 25 - Caulfield Grammar School is founded in Melbourne, Australia.
  • April 28 - Billy the Kid escapes from his two jailers at the Lincoln County jail in Mesilla, New Mexico, killing James Bell and Robert Ollinger before stealing a horse and riding out of town.
  • May 12 - In North Africa, Tunisia becomes a French protectorate.
  • May 21 - The American Red Cross is established by Clara Barton.
  • May 21 - The United States Tennis Association is established by a small group of tennis club members.
  • June 12 - The USS Jeannette is crushed in an Arctic Ocean ice pack.

July - September

  • July 1 - General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell-Childers reforms of the British Army's organization, came into effect.
  • July 2 - James Abram Garfield, President of the United States is shot by lawyer Charles Julius Guiteau. He survives the assassination attempt but he suffers from infection of his wound.
  • July 4 - In Alabama, the Tuskegee Institute opens.
  • July 14 - Billy the Kid is shot and killed by Pat Garrett outside Fort Sumner.
  • July 20 - Indian Wars: Sioux chief Sitting Bull leads the last of his fugitive people in surrender to United States troops at Fort Buford in Montana.
  • August 3 - Pretoria Convention peace treaty signed, officially ending the war between the Boers and Britain.
  • August 27 - A hurricane hits Florida and Carolinas: about 700 die.
  • September 5 - The Thumb Fire in the U.S. state of Michigan destroys over a million acres (4,000 km²) and kills 282 people.
  • September 12 - Francis Howell High School (Howell Institute) in St. Charles, Missouri, and Stephen F. Austin High School in Austin, Texas open on the same day, putting them in a tie for the title of oldest public high school west of the Mississippi River.
  • September 19 - US President James A. Garfield dies. Vice President Chester Arthur becomes the 21st President of the United States.

October - December

  • October 26 - Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Cochise County, Arizona, USA.
  • October 29 - Judge (US magazine) is first published.
  • November 11 - The Clarkson Memorial in Wisbech was completed and unveiled to the public.
  • November 19 - A meteorite struck earth near the village of Großliebenthal, a few kilometers southwest of Odessa, Ukraine.
  • December 5 - The 47th US Congress (1881-83) convenes.
  • December 8 - At least 620 die in fire at the Ring Theatre, Vienna.
  • December 28 - Virgil Earp was ambushed in Tombstone and loses the use of his left arm.

Undated

  • New York City's oldest independent school for girls, the Convent of the Sacred Heart New York (91st Street), is founded.
  • Edward Rudolf founded the 'Church of England Central Society for Providing Homes for Waifs and Strays' (now The Children's Society).
  • The Pali Text Society is founded.
  • University College Dublin is established in Ireland.
  • The United States National Lawn Tennis Association (USNLTA) is founded, and the first U.S. Tennis Championships are played.
  • Founding of the League of the Three Emperors.
  • Some Vatican archives opened to scholars for the first time.
  • Abilene, Texas is founded.
  • Newcastle United F.C. is founded as Stanley F.C., with a further name change to Newcastle East End F.C. a few months later.
  • Leyton Orient F.C. is founded.
  • Minto, North Dakota is founded.
  • Rafaela, Argentina is formed.
  • Culford School a public school in Suffolk, United Kingdom is founded.
  • 18 of 42 slave dealers in Istanbul are women.

Births

1881 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1881
MDCCCLXXXI
Ab urbe condita 2634
Armenian calendar 1330
ԹՎ ՌՅԼ
Bahá'í calendar 37 – 38
Berber calendar 2831
Buddhist calendar 2425
Burmese calendar 1243
Chinese calendar 4517/4577-12-2
( 庚辰年十二月初二日)
— to —
4518/4578-11-11
( 辛巳年十一月十一日)
Coptic calendar 1597 – 1598
Ethiopian calendar 1873 – 1874
Hebrew calendar 5641 – 5642
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1936 – 1937
 - Shaka Samvat 1803 – 1804
 - Kali Yuga 4982 – 4983
Holocene calendar 11881
Iranian calendar 1259 – 1260
Islamic calendar 1298 – 1299
Japanese calendar Meiji 14
(明治14年)
Korean calendar 4214
Thai solar calendar 2424

January - June

  • January 1 - Vajiravudh, King of Thailand (d. 1925)
  • January 9
    • Lascelles Abercrombie, English poet and critic (d. 1938)
    • Giovanni Papini, Italian essayist, poet, and novelist (d. 1956)
  • January 17 - Antoni Lomnicki, Polish mathematician (d. 1941)
  • January 31 - Irving Langmuir, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1957)
  • February 12 - Anna Pavlova, Russian ballerina (d. 1931)
  • March 4
    • Maude Fealy, American stage and film actor (d. 1971)
    • Thomas Sigismund Stribling, American writer (d. 1965)
    • Richard C. Tolman, American mathematical physicist (d. 1948)
  • March 9 - Ernest Bevin, British labour leader, politician, and statesman (d. 1951)
  • March 17 - Walter Rudolf Hess, Swiss physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
  • March 23
    • Roger Martin du Gard, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958)
    • Hermann Staudinger, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1965)
  • March 25
    • Béla Bartók, Hungarian composer (d. 1945)
    • Mary Webb, English writer (d. 1927)
  • May 14 - G. Murray Hulbert, American politician (d. 1950)
  • May 19 - Official birthday of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and the first President of Turkey (d. 1938)
  • May 20 - Władysław Sikorski, Polish general and politician (d. 1943)
  • June 17 - Tommy Burns, Canadian-born boxer (d. 1955)

July - December

  • July 2 - Royal H. Weller, American politician (d. 1929)
  • July 4 - Ulysses S. Grant III, American soldier and planner (d. 1968)
  • July 27 - Hans Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1945)
  • July 30 - Smedley Butler, U.S. general (d. 1940)
  • August 6 - Sir Alexander Fleming, Scottish researcher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1955)
  • August 19 - Georges Enescu, Romanian composer (d. 1955)
  • August 20 - Edgar Guest, English poet (d. 1959)
  • September 5 - Otto Bauer, Austrian Social Democratic politician (d. 1938)
  • September 8 - Harry Hillman, American athlete (d. 1945)
  • September 16 - Clive Bell, English art critic (d. 1964)
  • September 17 - Alfred Francis Blakeney Carpenter, English soldier (d. 1955)
  • September 26 - Hiram Wesley Evans, Ku Klux Klan Imperial Wizard (d. 1966)
  • October 1 - William Boeing, American engineer and airplane manufacturer (d. 1956)
  • October 11 - Hans Kelsen, Austrian legal theorist (d. 1973)
  • October 15
  • October 22 - Clinton Davisson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958)
  • October 25 - Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter (d. 1973)
  • November 5 - George A. Malcolm, American jurist & educator (d. 1961)
  • November 14 - Nicholas Schenck, Russian-born film studio executive (d. 1969)
  • November 24 - Al Christie, Canadian-born director and producer (d. 1951)
  • November 25 - Pope John XXIII (d. 1963)
  • November 28 - Stefan Zweig, Austrian writer (d. 1942)
  • December 3 - Henry Fillmore, American composer (d. 1956)
  • December 24 - Juan Ramón Jiménez, Spanish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958)


Deaths

January - June

  • January 3 - Anna McNeill Whistler, Whistler's mother (b. 1804)
  • January 21 - Wilhelm Matthias Naeff, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1802)
  • February 5 - Thomas Carlyle, Scottish writer and historian (b. 1795)
  • February 9 - Fyodor Dostoevsky, Russian novelist (b. 1821)
  • February 14 - Fernando Wood, New York City Mayor (b. 1812)
  • March 13 - Czar Alexander II of Russia (b. 1818)
  • March 28 - Modest Mussorgsky, Russian composer (b. 1839)
  • April 19 - Benjamin Disraeli, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1804)
  • May 24 - Samuel Palmer, English artist (b. 1805)
  • May 25 - Giuseppe Maria Giulietti, Italian explorer (b. 1847)
  • June 6 - Henri Vieuxtemps, Belgian composer (b. 1820)

July - December

  • July 14 - Billy the Kid, American gunslinger (b. 1859)
  • July 17 - Jim Bridger, American explorer and trapper (b. 1804)
  • September 7 - Sidney Lanier, American writer (b. 1842)
  • September 8 - Prince Frederik of the Netherlands, Dutch noble and general (b. 1797)
  • September 19 - James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States (assassinated) (b. 1831)
  • September 22 - Solomon L. Spink, U.S. Congressman from Illinois (b. 1831)
  • October 3 - Orson Pratt, American religious leader (b. 1811)
  • October 31 - George DeLong, American naval officer and explorer (starvation) (b. 1844)