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1913

Related subjects Years

Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century
Decades: 1880s  1890s  1700s  - 1910s -   1920s   1930s   1940s
Years: 1910 1911 1912 - 1913 - 1914 1915 1916

Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar).

Events of 1913

January

  • 13 January
    • Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated, a Social Sorority, is founded on the campus of Howard University by twenty-two collegiate women.
    • The Irish Ulster Volunteers are reoganized into the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) by the Ulster Unionist Party, with the intention of defending Ulster against Home Rule.
  • 23 January - Coup of 1913 in the Ottoman Empire, lead by Enver Pasha; the CUP overthrew the Liberal Union coalition and introduced a military dictatorship.
  • 30 January - House of Lords rejects third Irish Home Rule Bill.

February

1 February: New York's Grand Central building as rebuilt (c.1911).
1 February New York's Grand Central building as rebuilt (c.1911).
  • 1 February - New York City's Grand Central Terminal, having been rebuilt, reopens as the world's largest train station.
  • 3 February - The 16th Amendment to the US Constitution is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect income taxes.
  • 4 February - Trial of the remnants of the Bonnot gang begins.
  • 9 February - "The Great Fireball Procession": a chain of slow, large meteors moving from northwest to southeast is sighted over North America, particularly in Canada.
  • 17 February - The Armory Show opens in New York City. It displays works of artists who are to become some of the most influential painters of the early 20th century.

March

  • 3 March - The First Women's Suffrage March.
  • March - Outpouring of monarchist sentiment in Russia when the House of Romanov celebrates the 300th anniversary of their succession to the throne.
  • 4 March
4 March: Wilson sworn in as the 28th president of the United States.
4 March: Wilson sworn in as the 28th president of the United States.
  • 7 March - British freighter Alum Chine carrying 343 tons of dynamite explodes in Baltimore harbour.
  • 10 March - Civil Rights activist Harriet Tubman dies of pneumonia.
  • 12 March - Australia begins building the new federal capital of Canberra.
  • 13 March - Mexican Revolution - Pancho Villa returns to Mexico from his self-imposed exile in USA.
  • 18 March - King George I of Greece is assassinated.
  • 20 March - Sung Chiao-jen, a founder of the Chinese nationalist party ( KMT) is wounded in an assassination attempt and dies 2 days after.
  • 25 March
    • Venustiano Carranza announces his Plan of Guadalupe and begins his rebellion against Victoriano Huerta's government as the head of " Constitutionals."
    • 2 days of rain in the Miami Valley flood the region and mark the worst natural disaster in Ohio's recorded history. Dayton is especially devastated in this great flood.
  • 26 March - Balkan War Bulgarian forces take Adrianople.
12 March: Canberra begins building the new capital of Australia.
12 March Canberra begins building the new capital of Australia.

April

  • 8 April - Passing of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, dictating the direct election of senators.
  • 24 April - Woolworth Building opening ceremony.

May

  • May - The painting September Morn creates a national sensation in the USA and results in a court case.
  • 13 May - Igor Sikorsky becomes the first person to pilot a four engine aircraft.
  • 14 May - New York Governor William Sulzer approves the charter for the Rockefeller Foundation which begins operations with a $100,000,000 donation from John D. Rockefeller.
  • 29 May - Igor Stravinsky's ballet score The Rite of Spring is premiered in Paris causing a riot that very night.
  • 30 May - First Balkan War: A peace treaty is signed in London ending the war.

June

  • June - First edition of the Christian Esoteric magazine Rays from the Rose Cross in the United States; still issued bimonthly till today.
  • 4 June - Emily Davison, a suffragette, runs out in front of the king's horse, Anmer, at the Epsom Derby. She was trampled and died four days later in the hospital, never having regained consciousness.
  • 13 June - Great Gorge and International Railway trolley and passengers are buried under the contents of an overhead garbage chute that broke in Niagara Falls, New York.
  • 15 June - Bud Bagsak Massacre: US troops under General John 'Black Jack' Pershing kill at least 2,000 civilians, Bud Bagsak, Philippines. (Disputed: First Battle of Bud Dajo)
  • 24 June - Joseph Cook becomes the 6th Prime Minister of Australia.

July

  • 3 July - Commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg draws thousands of American Civil War veterans and their families to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  • 10 July - Death Valley, California hits 134 °F (~56.7 °C) which is the highest temperature recorded in the United States (as of 2004).

August

  • 4 August - In China, province of Chungking declares independence. Chinese Republican forces crush the rebellion in a couple of weeks
  • 10 August - Division of Macedonia after the second Balkan War, according to the Treaty of Bucharest
  • 13 August - Invention of stainless steel by Harry Brearley in Sheffield.
  • 15 August - Start of Dublin Strike & Lockout, all trade union members dismissed
  • 20 August - 700 feet above Buc, France, parachutist Adolphe Pegond jumps from an airplane and lands safely.

September

  • 19 September - Francis Ouimet wins the U.S. Open by five strokes to become the first amateur to ever win the event
  • 23 September - French aviator Roland Garros flies over the Mediterranean
  • 29 September
    • Rudolf Diesel disappears en route to Britain
    • Pancho Villa is elected commander of the "Northern Division" of the Constitutionals

October

  • 1 October - Villa's troops take Torreon after a three-day battle when government troops retreat
  • 3 October - The United States Revenue Act of 1913 re-imposes the federal income tax and lowers basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%.
  • 10 October - US President Woodrow Wilson triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike, ending construction on the Panama Canal.
  • 19 October - Founding of the DLRG (German Life Saving Society)

November

  • November 1st - 56,654: Highest number of Panama Canal employees recorded since construction began in 1704.
  • 5 November - The insane king Otto of Bavaria is deposed by his cousin, Prince Regent Ludwig, who assumed the title Ludwig III.
  • 6 November - Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.
  • 7 November- 11 - The Great Lakes Storm of 1913 kills more than 250.

December

  • 1 December
    • Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line, reducing chassis assembly time from 12½ hours in October to 2 hours, 40 minutes (although Ford was not the first to use an assembly line, his successful adoption of one did spark an era of mass production).
    • Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the first Balkan war, is annexed by Greece.
  • 12 December
    • Emperor of Ethiopia Menelik II dies and is succeeded by his grandson Iyasu V of Ethiopia.
    • Vincenzo Perugia tries to sell Mona Lisa in Florence and is arrested.
  • 21 December - Arthur Wynne's "word-cross", the first crossword puzzle, is published in the New York World.
  • 23 December - The Federal Reserve is created by Woodrow Wilson.
  • 30 December - Italy returns Mona Lisa to France.
  • December - Bombay India Gateway of India constructed to commemorate first entry of Queen Victoria to India.

Undated

  • Female suffrage in Norway
  • British steamship Calvadas disappears in the Marmara Sea with 200 hands on board.
  • de Sitter: shows speed of light is independent of speed of source.
  • Sagnac: shows speed of light depends on speed of rotating platform.
  • Camel cigarettes are introduced.
  • First publication of Journal of Ecology.
  • National Temperance Council founded to promote the temperance movement.
  • United States Soccer Federation is formed.
  • The modern zipper is invented.
  • The cities of Winston, North Carolina and Salem, North Carolina officially merged to become Winston-Salem.
  • End of Portuguese immigration to the Hawaiian Islands (1878-1913).
  • The value of world trade roughly $38 billion.
  • Schools founded: The Hockaday School, Crescent School.

Ongoing

  • First Balkan War.

Births

1913 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1913
MCMXIII
Ab urbe condita 2666
Armenian calendar 1362
ԹՎ ՌՅԿԲ
Bahá'í calendar 69 – 70
Berber calendar 2863
Buddhist calendar 2457
Burmese calendar 1275
Byzantine calendar 7421 – 7422
Chinese calendar 壬子年十一月廿四日
(4549/4609-11-24)
— to —
癸丑年十二月初五日
(4550/4610-12-5)
Coptic calendar 1629 – 1630
Ethiopian calendar 1705 – 1706
Hebrew calendar 5673 – 5674
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1968 – 1969
 - Shaka Samvat 1835 – 1836
 - Kali Yuga 5014 – 5015
Holocene calendar 11913
Iranian calendar 1291 – 1292
Islamic calendar 1331 – 1332
Japanese calendar Taishō 2
(大正2年)
Korean calendar 4246
Thai solar calendar 2456

January-February

  • 2 January - Anna Lee, English actress (d. 2004)
  • 5 January - Jack Haig, English actor (d. 1989)
  • 6 January - Edward Gierek, Polish politician (d. 2001)
  • 6 January - Loretta Young, American actress (d. 2000)
  • 9 January - Richard M. Nixon, President of the United States (d. 1994)
  • 10 January - Gustáv Husák, Slovak politician (d. 1991)
  • 15 January - Lloyd Bridges, American actor (d. 1998)
  • 15 January - Alexander Marinesko,captain of the S-13 submarine, which sank the German ship Wilhelm Gustloff, when 10,000 died while the ship sank.(d. 1963)
  • 18 January - Danny Kaye, American actor (d. 1987)
  • 18 January - George Unwin, British fighter ace WWII (d. 2006)
  • 22 January - William Cardinal Conway, Irish clergyman (d. 1977)
  • 22 January - Carl F. H. Henry, American theologian and publisher (d. 2003)
  • 24 January - Norman Dello Joio, American composer (d. 2008)
  • 25 January - Witold Lutosławski, Polish composer (d. 1994)
  • 26 January - Jimmy Van Heusen, American composer (d. 1990)
  • 28 January - Wally Parks, Founder of the NHRA {d. 2007)
  • 29 January - Peter von Zahn, German journalist and writer (d. 2001)
  • 2 February - Poul Reichhardt, Danish actor (d. 1985)
  • 4 February - Rosa Parks, American civil rights activist (d. 2005)
  • 6 February - Mary Leakey, British anthropologist (d. 1996)
  • 13 February - George Barker, British poet (d. 1991)
  • 14 February - Mel Allen, American sports reporter (d. 1996)
  • 14 February - Jimmy Hoffa, American labor leader (disappeared 1975)
  • 14 February - Woody Hayes, National Football League Coach (d. 12 March 1987)
  • 25 February - Jim Backus, American actor (d. 1989)
  • 25 February - Gert Fröbe, German actor (d. 1988)
  • 27 February - T. B. Ilangaratne, Sri Lankan author, dramatist, actor and politician (d. 1992)
  • 27 February - Paul Ricoeur, French philosopher (d. 2005)
  • 27 February - Irwin Shaw, American writer (d. 1984)
  • 27 February - Kazimierz Sabbat, Polish president (d. 1989)

March-April

  • 1 March - Richard S.R. Fitter, British writer (d. 2005)
  • 2 March - Godfried Bomans, Dutch writer (d. 1971)
  • 4 March - John Garfield, American actor (d. 1952)
  • 13 March - William Casey, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 1987)
  • 13 March - Smoky Dawson, Australian singer (d. 2008)
  • 13 March - Sergey Mikhalkov, Russian writer and lyricist
  • 18 March - René Clément, French film director (d. 1996)
  • 21 March - George Abecassis, English race car driver (d. 1991)
  • 26 March - Paul Erdős, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1996)
  • 26 March - Jacqueline de Romilly, French philologist
  • 29 March - R. S. Thomas, Welsh poet (d. 2000)
  • 30 March - Richard Helms, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 2002)
  • 30 March - Frankie Laine, American singer (d. 2007)
  • 30 March - Ċensu Tabone, Maltese politician
  • 31 March - Etta Baker, American musician (d. 2006)
  • 3 April - Per Borten, Premier of Norway (d. 2005)
  • 7 April - Charles Vanik, American politician (d. 2007)
  • 11 April - Oleg Cassini, American fashion designer (d. 2006)
  • 14 April - Jean Fournet, French conductor
  • 27 April - Philip Hauge Abelson, American physicist, writer, and editor (d. 2004)

May-June

  • 1 May - Louis Nye, American comedian and actor (d. 2005)
  • 1 May - Walter Susskind, Czech conductor (d. 1980)
  • 5 May - Tyrone Power, American actor (d. 1958)
  • 8 May - Saima Harmaja, Finnish poet (d. 1937)
  • 11 May - Robert Jungk, Austrian journalist (d. 1994)
  • 13 May - William R. Tolbert, Jr., President of Liberia (d. 1980)
  • 16 May - Woody Herman, American musician and band leader (d. 1987)
  • 20 May - William Hewlett, American businessman (d. 2001)
  • 26 May - Peter Cushing, English actor (d. 1994)
  • 29 May - Tony Zale, American boxer (d. 1997)
  • 6 June - Carlo L. Golino, American scholar (d. 1991)
  • 10 June - Tikhon Khrennikov, Russian composer (d. 2007)
  • 11 June - Vince Lombardi, American football coach (d. 1970)
  • 11 June - Risë Stevens, American mezzosoprano
  • 18 June - Robert Mondavi, American winemaker (d. 2008)
  • 18 June - Sylvia Field Porter, American economist and journalist (d. 1991)
  • 25 June - Cyril Fletcher, British comedian (d. 2005)
  • 26 June - Aimé Césaire, French Martinican poet and politician (d. 2008)
  • 28 June - Franz Antel, Austrian filmmaker (d. 2007)
  • 30 June - Alfonso López Michelsen, President of Colombia (d. 2007)

July-August

  • 3 July - Dorothy Kilgallen, American newspaper columnist (d. 1965)
  • 12 July - Philip Mayer Kaiser, American diplomat (d. 2007)
  • 12 July - Willis Lamb, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2008)
  • 14 July - Gerald Ford, 38th President of the United States (d. 2006)
  • 17 July - Roger Garaudy, French Holocaust denier
  • 18 July - Red Skelton, American comedian (d. 1997)
  • 22 July - Gorni Kramer, Italian bandleader and songwriter (d. 1995)
  • 22 July - Licia Albanese, Italian-born soprano
  • 23 July - Michael Foot, British politician
  • 8 August - John Facenda, American sports announcer (d. 1984)
  • 8 August - Robert Stafford, Governor of Vermont, U.S Representative and U.S. Senator. (d. 2006)
  • 10 August - Wolfgang Pauli, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1993)
  • 13 August - Fred Davis, English snooker and billiards player (d. 1998)
  • 13 August - Makarios III, Archbishop and first President of Cyprus (d.1977)
  • 16 August - Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1992)
  • 17 August - W. Mark Felt, American Federal Bureau of Investigation Associate Director and Deep Throat Watergate informant
  • 17 August - Rudy York, baseball player (d. 1970)
  • 19 August - Richard Simmons, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 20 August - Roger Wolcott Sperry, American neurobiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994)
  • 27 August - Nina Schenk von Stauffenberg, German wife of freedom fighter Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (d. 2006)
  • 28 August - Robertson Davies, Canadian novelist (d. 1995)
  • 28 August - Richard Tucker, American tenor (d. 1975)
  • 29 August - Jan Ekier, Polish pianist and composer
  • 30 August - Richard Stone, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1991)
  • 31 August - Helen Levitt, American photographer

September-October

  • 1 September - Ludwig Merwart, Austrian painter and graphic artist (1979)
  • 2 September - Israel Gelfand, Russian mathematician
  • 4 September
    • Stanford Moore, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1982)
    • Boone Guyton, American test pilot (d. 1996)
  • 12 September - Jesse Owens, American athlete (d. 1980)
  • 14 September - Jacobo Arbenz, President of Guatemala (d. 1971)
  • 15 September - John N. Mitchell, United States Attorney General and convicted Watergate criminal (d. 1988)
  • 19 September - Frances Farmer, American actress (d. 1970)
  • 28 September - Warja Honegger-Lavater, Swiss artist and illustrator (d. 2007)
  • 24 September - Wilson Rawls, American Author (d. 1984)
  • 29 September
    • Trevor Howard, English actor (d. 1988)
    • Stanley Kramer, American film producer, director, and writer (d. 2001)
    • Silvio Piola, Italian footballer (d. 1996)
  • 30 September - Bill Walsh, American movie producer and writer (d. 1975)
  • 10 October - Claude Simon, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2005)
  • 18 October - Evelyn Venable, American actress (d. 1993)
  • 22 October - Robert Capa, Hungarian-born photojournalist (d. 1954)
  • 22 October - Tamara Desni, German-born British actress (d. 2008)

November-December

  • 2 November - Burt Lancaster, American actor (d. 1994)
  • 5 November - Vivien Leigh, British actress (d. 1967)
  • 7 November - Albert Camus, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1960)
  • 7 November - Elizabeth Bradford Holbrook, Canadian sculptor
  • 9 November - Hedy Lamarr, Austrian actress (d. 2000)
  • 10 November - Álvaro Cunhal, Portuguese politician (d. 2005)
  • 13 November - Alexander Scourby, American actor (d. 1985)
  • 15 November - Arthur Haulot, Belgian journalist (d. 2005)
  • 21 November
    • John Boulting, English film director (d.1985)
    • Roy Boulting, English film director and producer (d. 2001)
  • 22 November
  • Benjamin Britten, English composer (d. 1976)
  • Cecilia Muñoz-Palma, first female Philippine Supreme Court Justice (d. 2006)
  • 23 November - Michael Gough, English actor
  • 25 November - Lewis Thomas, American physician and essayist (d. 1993)
  • 6 December
    • Nikolai Amosov, Ukrainian heart surgeon, inventor, best-selling author, and exercise enthusiast (d. 2002)
    • Eleanor Holm, American swimmer (d. 2004)
  • 8 December - Delmore Schwartz, American poet (d. 1966)
  • 9 December - Frances Reid, American actress
  • 10 December
    • Morton Gould, American composer (d. 1996)
    • Harry Locke, British character actor (d. 1987)
  • 13 December - Arnold Brown, Salvation Army general (d. 2002)
  • 15 December - Muriel Rukeyser, American poet (d. 1980)
  • 16 December - George Ignatieff, a Canadian diplomat was the recipient of the 1984 Pearson Medal of Peace. (d. 1989)
  • 18 December
  • 21 December - Arnold Friberg, American artist
  • 30 December - Elyne Mitchell, Australian author (d. 2002)

Deaths

January - June

  • 2 January - Léon Teisserenc de Bort, French meteorologist (b. 1855)
  • 4 January - Alfred von Schlieffen, German field marshal (b. 1833)
  • 22 February - Francisco I. Madero, President of Mexico (b. 1873)
  • 26 February - Felix Draeseke, German composer (b. 1835)
  • 10 March - Harriet Tubman, American abolitionist (b. 1820)
  • 11 March - John Shaw Billings, American military and medical leader (b. 1838)
  • 18 March - King George I of Greece (b. 1845)
  • 22 March - Sung Chiao-jen, Chinese revolutionary (b. 1882)
  • 31 March - J.P.Morgan, American financier and banker (b. 1837)
  • 1 May - John Barclay Armstrong, Texas Ranger and U.S. Marshal (b. 1850)
  • 16 May - Louis Perrier, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1849)
  • 5 June - Chris von der Ahe, German-born brewer and baseball owner
  • 8 June - Emily Davison, British suffragette (b. 1872)
  • 28 June - Manoel Ferraz de Campos Salles, Brazilian president (b. 1841)

July - December

  • 3 July - Horatio Nelson Young, American naval hero (b. 1845)
  • 13 July - Edward Burd Grubb, American Civil War Union Brevet Brigadier General (b. 1841)
  • 19 July - Clímaco Calderón, President of Colombia (b. 1852)
  • 29 July - Tobias Michael Carel Asser, Dutch jurist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1838)
  • 30 September - Rudolf Diesel, German engine inventor (b. 1858)
  • 5 October - Hans von Bartels, German painter (b. 1856)
  • 7 November - Alfred Russel Wallace, Welsh biologist (b. 1823)
  • 22 November - Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Japanese shogun (b. 1837)
  • 7 December - Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano, Italian Catholic churchman and last surviving cardinal of Pius IX (b. 1828)
  • 12 December - Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1844)

Nobel prizes

  • Physics - Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes
  • Chemistry - Alfred Werner
  • Medicine - Charles Robert Richet
  • Literature - Rabindranath Tagore
  • Peace - Henri La Fontaine

Ship events

  • List of ship launches in 1913
  • List of ship commissionings in 1913
  • List of ship decommissionings in 1913

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