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1934

Related subjects Years

Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century
Decades: 1700s  1910s  1920s  - 1930s -   1940s   1950s   1960s
Years: 1931 1932 1933 - 1934 - 1935 1936 1937

Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar.

Events of 1934

January

1 January: Alcatraz becomes a prison.
1 January: Alcatraz becomes a prison.
  • 1 January
    • Alcatraz becomes a prison.
    • Nazi Germany passes the " Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring."
  • 7 January - The first Flash Gordon comic strip is published.
  • 10 January - Execution of Marinus van der Lubbe.
  • 13 January - The Candidate of Science degree is established in the USSR.
  • 24 January
    • New Constitution of Estonia enters into force.
    • Einstein visits the White House
  • 26 January
    • The Apollo Theatre opens in Harlem, New York City.
    • The 10 year German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact is signed by

Germany and the Second Polish Republic.

February

  • 6 February - February 6, 1934 French political crisis. The French far right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon, an attempted coup against the Third Republic
  • 9 February - Gaston Doumergue forms a new government in France
  • 12 February - The Export-Import Bank is incorporated.
  • 12 February to 16 February - Austrian Civil War
  • 16 February - Commission of Government sworn in as form of direct rule for the Dominion of Newfoundland.
  • 22 February - Frank Capra's It Happened One Night , starring Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert, is released. It becomes a smash hit and the first of Capra's great screen classics. It will become the first film to win all five of the major Academy Awards - Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Screenplay, Best Director, and Best Picture. Gable and Colbert will receive their only Oscars for this film.
  • 23 February - Léopold III becomes King of Belgium.

March

  • 1 March - Manchuria becomes Manchukuo following an invasion by the Japanese
  • 3 March - John Dillinger escapes from jail in Crown Point, Indiana, using a wooden pistol
  • 8 March - Prince Sigvard of Sweden loses his titles because of his marriage.
  • 12 March - A coup in Estonia by Konstantin Päts and general Johan Laidoner. All parties are banned.
  • 13 March - John Dillinger, Baby Face Nelson and their gang rob the First National Bank in Mason City, Iowa.
  • 20 March - All the police forces in Germany come under command of Heinrich Himmler
    • - Great Hakodate fire, killing at least 2,166 people at southern Hokkaido, Japan.

April

  • 1 April - Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker kill two young highway patrolmen near Grapevine, Texas.
  • 6 April - Rudyard Kipling and William Butler Yeats are awarded the Gothenburg Prize for Poetry.
  • 14 April - Black Sunday, where twenty of the worst dust storms within the Dust Bowl
  • 19 April - Surgeon R.K. Wilson allegedly takes a photograph of the Loch Ness Monster.
  • 22 April - John Dillinger and two others shoot their way out of an FBI ambush in northern Wisconsin

May

11 May: dust storm in Great Plains.
11 May: dust storm in Great Plains.
  • 7 May - Pearl of Lao Tzu, 24 x 14 cm, is found in a giant clam off Palawan, Philippines.
  • 11 May - Dust Bowl: A strong two-day dust storm removes massive amounts of Great Plains topsoil in one of the worst dust storms of the Dust Bowl.
  • 15 May
    • The United States Department of Justice offers a $25,000 reward for John Dillinger.
    • Kārlis Ulmanis establishes an authoritarian government in Latvia.
  • 23 May - A team of police officers, led by Texas Ranger Frank Hamer, ambush bank robbers Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow near their hide-out in Black Lake, Louisiana, killing them both.
  • 24 May
    • Tomáš Masaryk re-elected president of Czechoslovakia.
    • The five-day "Battle of Toledo" occurs during the Auto-Lite strike in Toledo, Ohio.
  • 28 May - Near Callander, Ontario, the Dionne quintuplets are born to Oliva and Elzire Dionne, becoming the first quintuplets to survive infancy.
  • 29 May - 31 May - The Confessional Synod of the German Evangelical Church met in Barmen, Germany to write the Barmen Declaration.


June

  • 6 June - New Deal: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Securities Exchange Act into law, establishing the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
  • 9 June - Release of the animated short The Wise Little Hen, directed by Bert Gillett for the Silly Symphonies series, featuring the debut of Donald Duck.
  • 10 June - Italy beat Czechoslovakia 2-1 after extra time to win the 1934 World Cup.
  • 12 June - Political parties banned in Bulgaria
  • 14 June - Max Baer defeats champion Primo Carnera for the world heavyweight boxing title.
  • 18 June - Indian Reorganization Act was enacted.
  • 27 June - Emir of Yemen and ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia conclude a peace treaty
  • 30 June
    • The Nazi SA camp Oranienburg becomes national camp, taken over by the SS.
    • Night of the Long Knives - Nazis purge the SA

July

  • 1 July
    • The world famous Brookfield Zoo opens.
    • The Hays Office censorship code for motion pictures goes into full effect in the United States.
  • 10 July - German social democrat and author Erich Mühsam killed in Oranienburg concentration camp
  • 17 July - Supreme court of North Dakota declares lieutenant governor of the state, Ole H. Olson, the legitimate governor and tells William Langer to resign. Langer proceeds to declare North Dakota independent. He revokes the declaration after the Supreme Court justices meet him.
  • 22 July - Outside Chicago's Biograph Theatre, "Public Enemy No. 1" John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents.
  • 25 July
    • Austrian Nazis assassinate chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss during a failed coup attempt.
    • Birth of Luang Por Sumedho in Seattle, Washington.

August

  • 2 August - Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany, becoming head of state as well as Chancellor.
  • 8 August - The Wehrmacht swears a personal oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler.
  • 13 August - The comic strip Lil' Abner is first published.
  • 19 August - The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio.
  • 25 August - Anti-union vigilantes seize the town of McGuffey, Ohio, during the Hardin County onion pickers strike.

September

  • 8 September - Off the New Jersey coast, a fire aboard the passenger liner Morro Castle kills 134 people.
  • 19 September
  • 21 September - Typhoon in Honshū, Japan - 3036 reported killed. Mainly destroy temple, schools, and other buildings at Osaka.
  • 22 September - A gas explosion took place at Gresford Colliery in Wrexham, north-east Wales which led to the death of 266 miners and rescuers. This was one of the worst tragedies in Welsh mining history.
  • 28 September
    • Afghanistan joins the League of Nations
    • Trial for the custody of young Gloria Vanderbilt begins. It lasts seven weeks and ends with a compromise.
  • 29 September - Stanley Matthews makes his England debut, beginning a record 23-year international career

October

  • 2 October - Tornado in Osaka and Kyoto destroys the rice harvest - 1660 dead, 5400 injured
  • 5 October - Asturian miners rebel. ( Asturias, Spain).
  • 6 October - Catalonian separatists rebel
  • 9 October - King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French foreign minister Louis Barthou are assassinated during the king's state visit in Marseilles.
  • 16 October - The Long March of Chinese communists begins.
  • 22 October - Charles Arthur "Pretty Boy" Floyd shot and killed by FBI agents near East Liverpool, Ohio.

November

  • 13 November - Italian government decreed that teachers must use a military or party uniform in a class.
  • 21 November
    • MCC makes an ultimately controversial decision to alter the lbw rule so a batsman can be lbw to a ball pitching outside off stump. The change is later blamed for many problems developing during the 1950s - primarily negative bowling outside leg stump to a field of short-leg fieldsmen.
    • Cole Porter's musical Anything Goes, starring Ethel Merman, premieres in New York City.
  • 23 November - An Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission in the Ogaden discovers an Italian garrison at Walwal, which lay well within Ethiopian territory. This encounter leads to the Abyssinia Crisis.
  • 26 November - Universal Pictures releases the first film version of Fannie Hurst's novel, Imitation of Life, starring Claudette Colbert and Louise Beavers. It gives Beavers, who was usually featured in small roles as a maid, her best screen role, and features the largest supporting role played by a black person in a Hollywood film up till then. Its storyline is extremely daring for a 1934 film - part of it revolves around a young mulatto girl rejecting her mother and trying to "pass for white". It is the first Hollywood film to seriously deal with this subject. The 1936 film version of Show Boat, also from Universal, will deal with a similar storyline.
  • 27 November - A running gun battle between FBI agents and bank robber Baby Face Nelson results in the death of one FBI agent and the mortal wounding of special agent Sam Cowley, who is still able to mortally wound Nelson.

December

  • 1 December - In the Soviet Union, Politburo member Sergei Kirov is shot dead at the Communist Party headquarters in Leningrad by Leonid Nikolaev (it is widely thought that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered this murder). In Mexico, Lázaro Cárdenas is inaugurated as President of that country.
  • 5 December - Abyssinia Crisis: Ethiopian and Italian troops exchange gunfire. Reported casualties for the Ethiopians are 150, and for the Italians 50.
  • 18 December - Low-key fascist conference in Moreaux
  • 24 December - Actor Lionel Barrymore begins what will become an annual tradition of the Golden Age of Radio - playing the role of Ebenezer Scrooge in dramatizations of Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol. Barrymore will continue playing Scrooge on radio until shortly before his death in 1954. He will also make a 78-RPM record album of the classic story, which will later be released on LP.
  • 26 December - American Airlines aircraft crashes in Adirondack Mountains
  • 27 December - Persia becomes Iran
  • 29 December - Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.

Undated

  • The sonoluminescence effect is discovered.
  • The GPU becomes the NKVD.
  • Abidjan becomes the capital of the French colony of Côte d'Ivoire.

Ongoing

  • Rise of the Nazi Party.

Births

1934 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1934
MCMXXXIV
Ab urbe condita 2687
Armenian calendar 1383
ԹՎ ՌՅՁԳ
Bahá'í calendar 90 – 91
Berber calendar 2884
Buddhist calendar 2478
Burmese calendar 1296
Byzantine calendar 7442 – 7443
Chinese calendar 癸酉年十一月十六日
(4570/4630-11-16)
— to —
甲戌年十一月廿五日
(4571/4631-11-25)
Coptic calendar 1650 – 1651
Ethiopian calendar 1926 – 1927
Hebrew calendar 5694 – 5695
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1989 – 1990
 - Shaka Samvat 1856 – 1857
 - Kali Yuga 5035 – 5036
Holocene calendar 11934
Iranian calendar 1312 – 1313
Islamic calendar 1352 – 1353
Japanese calendar Shōwa 9
(昭和9年)
Korean calendar 4267
Thai solar calendar 2477

January-February

  • 7 January - Charlie Jenkins, American runner
  • 9 January - Bart Starr, American football player
  • 11 January - Jean Chrétien, Prime Minister of Canada
  • 12 January - Mick Sullivan, English rugby league footballer
  • 16 January - Marilyn Horne, American mezzo-soprano
  • 18 January - Raymond Briggs, British writer and illustrator
  • 20 January - Tom Baker, British actor
  • 22 January - Bill Bixby, American television actor (d. 1993)
  • 24 January - Stanisław Grochowiak, Polish poet and dramatist (d. 1976)
  • 5 February - Hank Aaron, American baseball player
  • 7 February - Earl King, American musician (d. 2003)
  • 10 February - Fleur Adcock, New Zealand poet
  • 11 February
    • Tina Louise, American actress
    • Mary Quant, British fashion designer
    • John Surtees, British race car driver
  • 12 February
    • Anne Krueger, American economist
    • Bill Russell, American basketball player
  • 13 February - George Segal, American actor
  • 14 February
    • Michel Corboz, Swiss conductor
    • Florence Henderson, American actress
  • 15 February - Niklaus Wirth, Swiss computer scientist
  • 17 February
    • Alan Bates, British actor (d. 2003)
    • Barry Humphries, Australian actor and comedian
  • 20 February - Bobby Unser, American race car driver
  • 21 February - Rue McClanahan, American actress
  • 22 February
    • Sparky Anderson, baseball manager
    • Van Williams, American actor
  • 24 February
    • Bettino Craxi, Prime Minister of Italy (d. 2000)
    • Renata Scotto, Italian soprano
  • 27 February
    • Vincent Fourcade, French-born interior designer and socialite (d. 1992)
    • Ralph Nader, American consumer activist

March-April

  • 1 March
    • Jean-Michel Folon, Belgian sculptor (d. 2005)
    • Joan Hackett, American actress (d. 1983)
  • 4 March
    • Mario Davidovsky, Argentinian composer
    • John Duffey, bluegrass musician (d. 1996)
    • Anne Haney, American actress (d. 2001)
    • Barbara McNair, American singer and actress (d. 2007)
    • Janez Strnad, Slovenian physicist
  • 5 March - Daniel Kahneman, Israeli economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 7 March
    • Franklin Clarke, American football player
    • Willard Scott, American television broadcaster
  • 9 March
    • Yuri Gagarin, Russian cosmonaut, first man in space (d. 1968)
    • Del Close, American actor, improviser, writer, and teacher (d. 1999)
  • 11 March - Sam Donaldson, American reporter
  • 13 March - Barry Hughart, American author
  • 14 March
    • Eleanor Bron, British actress
    • Paul Rader, General of The Salvation Army
  • 16 March - Richard Layard, Baron Layard, British economist
  • 16 March - Ray Hnatyshyn, Governor-General of Canada (d. 2002)
  • 20 March - Willie Brown, Mayor of San Francisco, California
  • 22 March
    • Orrin Hatch, U.S. Senator from Utah
    • Larry Martyn, comedy actor (d. 1994)
  • 23 March - Mark Rydell, American actor and director
  • 25 March - Gloria Steinem, American feminist
  • 26 March - Alan Arkin, American actor
  • 31 March - Shirley Jones, American singer and actress
  • 31 March - Carlo Rubbia, Italian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1 April
    • Rod Kanehl, baseball player (d. 2004)
    • Vladimir Posner, Russian journalist
  • 2 April
    • Paul Joseph Cohen, American mathematician
    • Brian Glover, British actor and wrestler (d. 1997)
  • 3 April - Jane Goodall, British zoologist
  • 9 April - Bill Birch, New Zealand politician
  • 11 April - Mark Strand, Canadian-born American poet
  • 24 April
    • Shirley MacLaine, American actress
    • Jayakanthan, Tamil writer
  • 25 April - Peter McParland, Irish footballer
  • 29 April - Otis Rush, American musician

May-June

  • 3 May - Henry Cooper, British boxer
  • 9 May - Alan Bennett, British actor and writer
  • 13 May - Leon Wagner, baseball player (d. 2004)
  • 14 May - Siân Phillips, Welsh actress
  • 15 May - George Roper, British comedian (d. 2003)
  • 19 May - Jim Lehrer, American television journalist
  • 21 May - Bengt I. Samuelsson, Swedish biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 22 May - Peter Nero, American pianist
  • 23 May - Robert Moog, American inventor of the synthesizer
  • 24 May - Barry Rose, British choir director and organist
  • 27 May - Harlan Ellison, American writer
  • 28 May - Dionne quintuplets, Canadian quintuplets
  • 30 May - Aleksei Leonov, Russian cosmonaut
  • 3 June - Rolland D. McCune, American theologian
  • 5 June - Bill Moyers, American journalist
  • 6 June - King Albert II of Belgium
  • 16 June - William Forsyth Sharpe, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 26 June - Jeremy Wolfenden, British journalist (d. 1965)
  • 28 June - Carl Levin, United States Senator
  • 30 June - Harry Blackstone Jr., American magician (d. 1997)

July-August

  • 1 July
    • Jean Marsh, British actress
    • Sydney Pollack, American film director (d. 2008)
  • 10 July - Jerry Nelson, American puppeteer
  • 11 July - Giorgio Armani, Italian fashion designer
  • 12 July - Van Cliburn, American pianist
  • 13 July
    • Wole Soyinka, Nigerian writer, Nobel Prize laureate
    • Aleksei Yeliseyev, cosmonaut
  • 14 July - John Tyndall, British politician (d. 2005)
  • 15 July - Harrison Birtwistle, British composer
  • 30 July - Bud Selig, current Major League Baseball commissioner
  • 2 August - Valery Bykovsky, Russian cosmonaut and prostitute
  • 3 August - Jonas Savimbi, Angolan political and rebel leader (d. 2002)
  • 4 August - Dallas Green, American baseball manager and executive
  • 5 August - Wendell Berry, American novelist, essayist, poet
  • 6 August - Billy Boston, Welsh rugby league footballer
  • 15 August - Nino Ferrer, French singer (d. 1998)
  • 18 August - Vincent Bugliosi, American prosecutor and author
  • 18 August - Roberto Clemente, Puerto Rican Major League Baseball player (d. 1972)
  • 19 August - Renée Richards, American transsexual physician and tennis player
  • 22 August - Norman Schwarzkopf, U.S. Army general
  • 23 August
    • Sonny Jurgensen, American football player
    • Barbara Eden, American actress
  • 25 August - Eddie Ilarde, Filipino broadcaster and politician
  • 26 August - Tom Heinsohn, American baseketball player, coach, and broadcaster
  • 30 August - Anatoli Solonitsyn, Russian actor (d. 1982)

September-October

  • 2 September - Dominic Chianese, American actor
  • 4 September - Clive Granger, Welsh-born economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 7 September - Little Milton, American musician
  • 8 September - Peter Maxwell Davies, English composer
  • 10 September - Charles Kuralt, American journalist (d. 1997)
  • 15 September - Fred Nile, Australian Christian politician
  • 16 September - Elgin Baylor, American basketball player and executive
  • 17 September - Maureen Connolly, American tennis player (d. 1969)
  • 19 September - Brian Epstein, English manager of the Beatles (d. 1967)
  • 20 September - Sophia Loren, Italian actress
  • 21 September - Leonard Cohen, Canadian poet, novelist and singer/songwriter
  • 22 September - Lute Olson, American basketball coach
  • 23 September - Ahmad Shah Khan, Crown Prince of Afghanistan
  • 24 September - Tommy Anderson, Scottish footballer
  • 27 September - Wilford Brimley, diabetic actor.
  • 28 September - Brigitte Bardot, French actress, sex symbol of the 1950s and 60's, and animal rights activist
  • 30 September - Anna Kashfi, Welsh actress
  • 1 October - Chuck Hiller, baseball player (d. 2004)
  • 1 October- Shakeb Jalali famous URDU poet(d. 1966)
  • 2 October - Earl Wilson, baseball player (d. 2005)
  • 4 October - Sam Huff, American football player
  • 9 October - Jill Ker Conway, Australian-born author
  • 13 October - Nana Mouskouri, Greek singer
  • 17 October - Rico Rodriguez, Jamaican trombonist
  • 18 October - Chuck Swindoll, American evangelist
  • 20 October - Michael Dunn, a.k.a. Gary Neil Miller, dwarf American actor and singer (d. 1973)
  • 30 October - Frans Brüggen, Dutch flutist, recorder player, and conductor

November-December

  • 1 November - Umberto Agnelli, Swiss-born automobile executive (d. 2004)
  • 6 November - Barton Myers, American/Canadian architect
  • 9 November - Carl Sagan, American astronomer (d. 1996)
  • 12 November - Charles Manson, American criminal
  • 13 November - John Gowans, General of The Salvation Army
  • 24 November - Alfred Schnittke, Volga German composer (d. 1998)
  • 27 November - Ammo Baba, Assyrian soccer legend
  • 2 December - Andre Rodgers, American baseball player (d. 2004)
  • 3 December - Viktor Gorbatko, Russian cosmonaut
  • 4 December - Wink Martindale, American game show host and disc jockey
  • 5 December - Joan Didion, American writer
  • 9 December
    • Judi Dench, British actress
    • Junior Wells, American harmonica player (d. 1998)
  • 10 December - Howard Martin Temin, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994)
  • 18 December - Boris Volynov, Russian cosmonaut
  • 19 December
    • Aki Aleong, Trinidad and Tobago actor
    • Al Kaline, baseball player
  • 27 December - Larissa Latynina, Russian gymnast
  • 28 December
    • Maggie Smith, British actress
    • Yujiro Ishihara, Japanese actor (d. 1987)
  • 30 December
    • Joseph P. Hoar, U.S. Marine commander
    • John Norris Bahcall, American astrophysicist (d. 2005)
    • Del Shannon, American singer (d. 1990)

Deaths

January - March

  • 6 January - Herbert Chapman, English football manager (b. 1878)
  • 10 January - Marinus van der Lubbe, Dutch communist accused of setting fire to the Reichstag (executed) (b. 1709)
  • 29 January - Fritz Haber, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1868)
  • 17 February - King Albert I of Belgium (b. 1875)
  • 23 February - Edward Elgar, English composer (b. 1857)
  • 15 March - Davidson Black, Canadian-born paleoanthropologist (b.1884)
  • 20 March - Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, Dutch Queen and regent (b.1858)
  • 29 March - Otto Hermann Kahn, German-born philanthropist (b. 1867)

April - June

  • 23 May
    • Clyde Barrow, American outlaw (shot) (b. 1910)
    • Bonnie Parker, American outlaw (shot) (b. 1910)
  • 25 May - Gustav Holst, English composer (b. 1874)
  • 30 May - Togo Heihachiro, Japanese admiral (b. 1848)
  • 10 June - Frederick Delius, English composer (b. 1862)
  • 11 June - Lev Vygotsky, Russian developmental psychologist (b. 1896)
  • 20 June - Andrew Jackson Zilker, American philanthropist (b. 1858)
  • 30 June - Kurt von Schleicher, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1882)

July - September

  • 4 July - Marie Curie, Polish-born scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and physics (b. 1867)
  • 8 July - Benjamin Baillaud, French astronomer (b. 1848)
  • 13 July - Kate Sheppard , New Zealand Women's suffrage for voting (b. 1848)
  • 22 July - John Dillinger, American criminal (b. 1703)
  • 25 July
    • François Coty, French perfume manufacturer (b. 1874)
    • Englebert Dolfuss, Chancellor of Austria (assassinated) (b. 1892)
  • 25 July - Nestor Makhno, Ukrainian anarchist (b. 1889)
  • 26 July - Winsor McCay, American comic creator and animator (b. 1871)
  • 27 July - Hubert Lyautey, Marshal of France (b. 1854)
  • 28 July - Marie Dressler, Canadian actress (b. 1868)
  • 2 August - Paul von Hindenburg, German general and politician (b. 1847)
  • 17 August - Charlotte Gilman, Noted poet and play write and in National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca, New York (b. 1860)
  • 2 September - Alcide Nunez, American musician (b. 1884)

October - December

  • 17 October - Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Spanish histologist and neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1852)
  • 2 November - Edmond James de Rothschild, French philanthropist (b. 1845)
  • 16 November - Alice Liddell, English schoolgirl, inspiration for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (b. 1852)
  • 22 November - Harry Steppe, American vaudeville performer (b. 1888)
  • 30 November - Hélène Boucher, French aviatrix (b. 1708)
  • 1 December - Sergei Kirov, Soviet leader (b. 1886)
  • 6 December - Duke Charles Michael of Mecklenburg, head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1863)

Nobel prizes

  • Physics - not awarded
  • Chemistry - Harold Clayton Urey
  • Physiology or Medicine - George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot, William Parry Murphy
  • Literature - Luigi Pirandello
  • Peace - Arthur Henderson

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