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República de Colombia  (Spanish)
Republic of Colombia
Flag of Colombia Image:Escudodecolombia.jpg
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Libertad y Orden"  (Spanish)
"Liberty and Order"
Anthem:  Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish)
Location of Colombia
(and largest city)
Official languages Spanish
Demonym Colombian
Government Presidential republic
 -  President Álvaro Uribe Velez
 -  Vice President Francisco Santos
 -  President of Congress Nancy Gutiérrez
 -  President of the Supreme Court César Valencia
Independence from Spain 
 -  Declared July 20, 1810 
 -  Recognized August 7, 1819 
 -  Total 1,141,748 km² ( 26th)
440,839  sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 8.8
 -  December 2007 estimate 44,065,000 ( 29th)
 -  2005 census 42,888,592 
 -  Density 40/km² ( 161st)
104/sq mi
GDP ( PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $337.286 billion ( 29th)
 -  Per capita $7,565 ( 81st)
Gini (2006) 52 (high
HDI (2007) 0.791 (medium) ( 75th)
Currency Peso ( COP)
Time zone ( UTC-5)
Internet TLD .co
Calling code +57

Colombia (IPA: /kəˈlʌmbɪə/) officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: , IPA [reˈpuβ̞lika ð̞e koˈlombja]), is a country located in the northwestern region of South America. Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the North by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; to the north-west by Panama; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Besides the countries in South America, the Republic of Colombia is recognized to share maritime borders with the Caribbean countries of Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and the Central American countries of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.

Colombia is the 26th largest nation in the world and the fourth-largest country in South America (after Brazil, Argentina, and Peru), with an area more than twice that of France. In Latin America, it is also the country with the third largest population after Brazil and Mexico.

Colombia is a standing middle power with the second largest Spanish speaking population of the world after Mexico. It is largely recognized for its culture and is also one of the largest manufacturers in South America. Colombia is also one of the most ethnically diverse nations in the Southern Cone, the product of large-scale migrations during the 20th century which has caused a dramatic population growth since then.

The country currently suffers from a low-intensity conflict involving rebel guerrilla groups, paramilitary militias, drug trafficking and corruption inside minor towns and some cities. The conflict originated around 1964-1966, when the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN) were founded and began their guerrilla insurgency campaigns against successive Colombian government administrations.


The word "Colombia" comes from the name of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón in Spanish, Cristoforo Colombo in Italian). It was conceived by the revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to the New World, especially to all American territories and colonies under Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was then adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819 formed by the union of Venezuela, New Granada and Ecuador.

In 1830 when Venezuela and Ecuador separated, the Cundinamarca region that remained became a new country: the Republic of New Granada. In 1863 New Granada officially changed its name to United States of Colombia, and in 1886 adopted its present day name:Republic of Colombia.


The Zipa used to cover his body in gold and, from his raft, he offered treasures to the Guatavita goddess in the middle of the sacred lake. This old Muisca tradition became the origin of El Dorado legend.
The Zipa used to cover his body in gold and, from his raft, he offered treasures to the Guatavita goddess in the middle of the sacred lake. This old Muisca tradition became the origin of El Dorado legend.

Approximately 10,000 BC hunter-gatherer societies existed near present-day Bogotá (at " El Abra" and "Tequendama") which traded with one another and with cultures living in the Magdalena River Valley. Beginning in the first millennium BC, groups of Amerindians developed the political system of " cacicazgos" with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques. Within Colombia, the two cultures with the most complex cacicazgo systems were the Tayronas in the Caribbean Region, and the Muiscas in the highlands around Bogotá, both of which were of the Chibcha language family. The Muisca people are considered to have had one of the most developed political systems in South America, after the Incas.

Spanish explorers made the first exploration of the Caribbean littoral in 1500 led by Rodrigo de Bastidas. Christopher Columbus navigated near the Caribbean in 1502. In 1508, Vasco Nuñez de Balboa started the conquest of the territory through the region of Urabá. In 1513, he was also the first European to discover the Pacific Ocean which he called Mar del Sur (or "Sea of the South") and which in fact would bring the Spaniards to Peru and Chile. The territory's main population was made up of hundreds of tribes of the Chibchan and Carib, currently known as the Caribbean people, whom the Spaniards conquered through warfare and alliances, while resulting disease and the conquest itself caused a demographic reduction among the indigenous. In the sixteenth century, Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa.

Francisco de Paula Santander, Simón Bolivar and other heroes of the Independence of Colombia in the Congress of Cúcuta.
Francisco de Paula Santander, Simón Bolivar and other heroes of the Independence of Colombia in the Congress of Cúcuta.

Since the beginning of the periods of Conquest and Colonization, there were several rebel movements under Spanish rule, most of them either being crushed or remaining too weak to change the overall situation. The last one, which sought outright independence from Spain, sprang up around 1810, following the independence of St. Domingue in 1804 (present day Haiti), who provided a non-negligible degree of support to the eventual leaders of this rebellion Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander. Simón Bolívar had become the first president of Colombia and Francisco de Paula Santander was Vice President; when Simón Bolívar stepped down, Santander became the second president of Colombia. The rebellion finally succeeded in 1819 when the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada became the Republic of Greater Colombia organized as a Confederation along Ecuador and Venezuela (Panama was part of Colombia).

The Gran Colombia.
The Gran Colombia.

Internal political and territorial divisions led to the secession of Venezuela and Quito (today's Ecuador) in 1830. At this time, the so-called "Department of Cundinamarca" adopted then the name " Nueva Granada", which it kept until 1856 when it became the "Confederación Granadina" ( Grenadine Confederation). After a two year civil war in 1863, the " United States of Colombia" was created, lasting until 1886, when the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia. Internal divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, occasionally igniting very bloody civil wars, the most significant being the Thousand Days civil war (1899 - 1702) which together with the United States intentions to influence in the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of the Department of Panama in 1703 and the establishment of it as a nation. Colombia engulfed in a year long war with Peru over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas Department and its capital Leticia. Soon after, Colombia achieved a relative degree of political stability, which was interrupted by a bloody conflict that took place between the late 1940s and the early 1950s, a period known as La Violencia ("The Violence"). Its cause was mainly because of mounting tensions between the two leading political parties, which subsequently ignited after the assassination of the Liberal Presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on April 9, 1948. This assassination caused riots in Bogotá and became known as El Bogotazo, the violence from these riots spread through out the country and claimed the lives of at least 180,000 Colombians. From 1953 to 1964 the violence between the two political parties decreased first when Gustavo Rojas deposed the President of Colombia in a coup d'etat, and negotiated with the guerrillas, and then under the military junta of General Gabriel París Gordillo.

After Rojas deposition the two political parties Colombian Conservative Party and Colombian Liberal Party agreed to the creation of a "National Front", whereby the Liberal and Conservative parties would govern jointly. The presidency would be determined by an alternating conservative and liberal president every 4 years for 16 years; the two parties would have parity in all other elective offices. The National Front ended " La Violencia", and National Front administrations attempted to institute far-reaching social and economic reforms in cooperation with the Alliance for Progress. In the end, the contradictions between each successive Liberal and Conservative administration made the results decidedly mixed. Despite the progress in certain sectors, many social and political injustices continued and many guerrillas were formally created such as the FARC, ELN and M-19 to fight the government and political apparatus with influences from Cold War doctrines.

Emerging in the late 1970s, powerful and violent drug cartels developed during the 1980s and 1990s. The Medellín Cartel under Pablo Escobar and the Cali Cartel, in particular, exerted political, economic and social influence in Colombia during this period. These cartels also financed and influenced different illegal armed groups throughout the political spectrum. Some enemies of these allied with the guerrillas and created or influenced paramilitary groups.

The new Colombian Constitution of 1991 was ratified after being drafted by the Constituent Assembly of Colombia. The constitution included key provisions on political, ethnic, human and gender rights. The new constitution initially prohibited the extradition of Colombian nationals. There were accusations of lobbying by drug cartels in favour of this prohibition. The cartels had previously promoted a violent campaign against extradition, leading to many terrorist attack and mafia style executions. They also tried to influence the government and political structure of Colombia by means of corruption, as in the case of the 8000 Process scandal.

Members of the Colombian National Army during a field training exercise.
Members of the Colombian National Army during a field training exercise.

In recent years, the country has continued to be plagued by the effects of the drug trade, guerrilla insurgencies like FARC and paramilitary groups such as the AUC (later demobilized, though paramilitarism remains active), which along with other minor factions have engaged in a bloody internal armed conflict. President Andrés Pastrana and the FARC attempted to negotiate a solution to the conflict between 1998 and 2002 but failed to do so. President Andrés Pastrana also began to implement the Plan Colombia initiative, with the dual goal of ending the armed conflict and promoting a strong anti-narcotic strategy.

During the presidency of Álvaro Uribe, who was elected on the promise of applying military pressure on the FARC and other criminal groups, some security indicators have improved, showing a decrease in reported kidnappings (from 3700 in the year 2000 to 800 in 2005) and a decrease of more than 48% in homicides between July 2002 and May 2005 and of the terrorist guerrila itself reduced from 16.900 insurgents to 8.900 insurgents. It is argued that these improvements have favored economic growth and tourism. The 2006–2007 Colombian parapolitics scandal emerged due to the revelations and judicial implications of past and present links between paramilitary groups, mainly the AUC, and some government officials and many politicians, most of them allied to the governing administration.

Geography and climate

Shaded relief map of Colombia.
Shaded relief map of Colombia.

Colombia is the 26th largest nation in the world and the fourth-largest country in South America. Located in the northwestern region of South America, it is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the North by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; to the north-west by Panama; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Besides the countries in South America, the Republic of Colombia is recognized to share maritime borders with the Caribbean countries of Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and the Central American countries of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Colombia has more physical diversity packed into its borders than any other area of comparable size in Latin America. The country is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Los Llanos plains in Colombia.
Los Llanos plains in Colombia.

Geologically Colombia is formed by two great territorial zones, one submerged in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean sea covering a total area of 828,660 km² and the second is the emerged land which is formed by the Andes mountain range and the Llanos plains that are shared with Venezuela and cover an area of some 1'143,748 km². Colombian surface features form complicated land patterns. The western third of the country is the most complex, starting at the shore of the Pacific Ocean in the west and moving eastward at a latitude of 5 degrees north, a diverse sequence of features is encountered; In the extreme west are the very narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, which are backed by the Serranía de Baudó, one of the lowest and narrowest of Colombia's mountain ranges. Next is the broad region of the Río Atrato/Río San Juan lowland.

the Magdalena River at Santa Cruz de Mompox.
the Magdalena River at Santa Cruz de Mompox.

The western mountain range, the Cordillera Occidental, is a moderately high range with peaks reaching up to about 13,000 ft (4,000 m). The Cauca River Valley, an important agricultural region with several large cities on its borders, separates the Cordillera Occidental from the massive Cordillera Central. Several snow-clad volcanoes in the Cordillera Central have summits that rise above 18,000 ft (5,500 m). The valley of the Magdalena River, a major transportation artery, separates the Cordillera Central from the main eastern range, the Cordillera Oriental. The peaks of the Cordillera Oriental are moderately high. This range differs from Colombia's other mountain ranges in that it contains several large basins. To the east of the country, the sparsely populated, flat to gently rolling eastern lowlands called Llanos orientales part of the Orinoco river basin and the jungle covered Amazon region part of the Amazon river basin (both basins called eastern plains) cover almost 60 percent of the country's total land area. The northern plains are mostly part of the Caribbean natural region which includes the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, the highest mountain by the sea and the Guajira Peninsula, mostly arid with another separate formation from the Andes mountain range, the Serranía de Macuira to form the Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub.


Glacier Snowy peaks of the Nevado del Tolima volcano. 5,200+ metres (17,060 ft)
Glacier Snowy peaks of the Nevado del Tolima volcano. 5,200+ metres (17,060 ft)

The climate of Colombia is determined by its proximity to the Earth's Equator predominating a tropical and isothermal climate, presenting variations within five natural regions and depending on the altitude; determined by mountain climate, temperature, humidity, winds; influenced by the trade winds and precipitation which is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Colombia is also affected by the effects of the El Niño and La Niña.

Depending on the altitude temperatures decrease about 3.5 ° F (2 ° C) for every 1,000-foot (300-m) increase in altitude above sea level, presenting perpetual snowy peaks to lower hot lands. Rainfall varies by location and is present in two seasons (two dry and two rainy) in Colombia presenting one of the highest rainfalls in the world in the Pacific region. Rainfall in parts of the Guajira Peninsula seldom exceeds 30 in (75 cm) per year. Colombia's rainy southeast, however, is often drenched by more than 200 in (500 cm) of rain per year. Rainfall in most of the rest of the country runs between these two extremes.

The hot and humid Colombian Pacific coast, one of the rainiest in the world.
The hot and humid Colombian Pacific coast, one of the rainiest in the world.

Altitude affects not only temperature, but also vegetation. In fact, altitude is one of the most important influences on vegetation patterns in Colombia. The mountainous parts of the country can be divided into several vegetation zones according to altitude, although the altitude limits of each zone may vary somewhat depending on the latitude. The "tierra caliente" (hot land), below 3,300 ft (1,000 m), is the zone of tropical crops. The tierra templada (temperate land), extending from an altitude of 3,300 to 6,600 ft (1,000 to 2,000 m). Wheat and potatoes dominate in the "tierra fría" (cold land), at altitudes from 6,600 to 10,500 ft (2,000 to 3,200 m). In the "zona forestada" (forested zone), which is located between 10,500 and 12,800 ft (3,200 and 3,900 m). Treeless pastures table lands dominate the páramos, or alpine grasslands, at altitudes of 12,800 to 15,100 ft (3,900 to 4,600 m). Above 15,100 ft (4,600 m), where temperatures are below freezing, is the "tierra helada", a zone of permanent snow and ice.

Colombian Flora and Fauna also interact with climate zone patterns. A scrub woodland of scattered trees and bushes dominates the semiarid northeastern steppe and tropical desert. To the south, savannah (tropical grassland) vegetation covers the eastern plains; Colombian portion of the llanos. The rainy areas in the southeast are blanketed by tropical rain forest. In the mountains, the spotty patterns of precipitation in alpine areas complicate vegetation patterns. The rainy side of a mountain may be lush and green, while the other side, in the rain shadow, may be parched. As a result Colombia is considered to be among 17 of the most megadiverse countries in the world.

Environmental issues

Nevado del Ruiz volcano, erupted in 1985 causing the Armero tragedy.
Nevado del Ruiz volcano, erupted in 1985 causing the Armero tragedy.

The environment issues in Colombia are caused by both natural hazards and human effects on the environment. Natural hazards are determined by the global positioning of Colombia by the Pacific ring of fire causing geological instability. Colombia has some 15 major volcanoes which have caused tragedies like Armero and geological faults that have caused numerous devastating earthquakes like the 1999 Armenia earthquake. Human induced deforestation have also added to the problems of geological instability and inundations during the rainy seasons, two regions are very susceptible to these mainly in the Caribbean region of Colombia; La Mojana Region and the Magdalena river basin. The population increase and the burning of fossil fuels and industry, among other human produced waste has contaminated the environment of major cities and nearby water sources. Participants in the Colombian armed conflict have also contributed to the pollution of the environment in Colombia. The illegally armed groups have deforested large portions of land to plant illegal crops (mostly on government designated protected areas) while the government fumigated these crops using hazardous chemicals. The guerrillas also destroyed oil pipelines creating major ecological disasters.

Government, law and politics

Casa de Nariño, the presidential palace in Bogotá houses the President of Colombia and maximum representative of the Executive Branch of Colombia.
Casa de Nariño, the presidential palace in Bogotá houses the President of Colombia and maximum representative of the Executive Branch of Colombia.

The Government of Colombia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic as established in the Colombian Constitution of 1991. The Colombian government is divided into three branches of power; the executive, legislative and judicial with special control institutions and electoral institutions. The President of Colombia is the maximum representative of executive branch of government in Colombia and is also the head of state and head of government with supreme administrative authority, followed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Colombia.

At a provincial level the executive is managed by department governors, municipal mayors at municipal level and local administrators for smaller administrative subdivisions such as corregidor for corregimientos. The legislative branch of government in Colombia is represented by the National Congress of Colombia which is formed by an upper house the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives. At a provincial level the legislative branch is represented by department assemblies and a municipal level with municipal councils. Both the legislative and executive branches share most of the government power while the judicial branch of Colombia functions as an independent body from the other two branches which are vested with a shared power. The judicial branch under a adversarial system is represented by the Supreme Court of Justice which is the highest entity in this branch but shared in responsibility with the Council of State, Constitutional Court and the Superior Council of the Judicature which also have jurisdictional and regional courts.

Administrative divisions

Colombia is divided into 32 departments and one capital district which is treated as a department. There are in total 10 districts assigned to cities in Colombia including Bogotá, Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta, Tunja, Cúcuta, Popayán, Buenaventura, Tumaco and Turbo. Colombia is also subdivided into some municipalities which form departments, each with a municipal seat capital city assigned. Colombia is also subdivided into corregimientos which form municipalities. Each department has a local government which is headed by a department governor and its own department assembly elected for a period of four years in a regional election. Each municipality also headed by a municipal mayor and a municipal council. And for corregimientos there will be an elected corregidor or local leader.

Departments of Colombia.
Departments of Colombia.

  1 Amazonas
  2 Antioquia
  3 Arauca
  4 Atlántico
  5 Bolívar
  6 Boyacá
  7 Caldas
  8 Caquetá
  9 Casanare
10 Cauca
11 Cesar
12 Chocó
13 Córdoba
14 Cundinamarca
15 Guainía
16 Guaviare
17 Huila

18 La Guajira
19 Magdalena
20 Meta
21 Nariño
22 Norte de Santander
23 Putumayo
24 Quindío
25 Risaralda
26 San Andrés and Providencia
27 Santander
28 Sucre
29 Tolima
30 Valle del Cauca
31 Vaupes
32 Vichada
33 Bogotá* (Distrito Capital)

Some department have also local administrative regional subdivisions such as the departments of Antioquia and Cundinamarca, where towns have a large concentration of population and municipalities are near each other. In the case of some department where the population is still scarce and there are security problems such as in eastern Colombian departments of Amazonas, Vaupés and Vichada there special administrative definitions for territories, some are considered Department corregimientos, which are a hybrid between a corregimiento and a municipality. The difference besides the population is also subject to a cut in the assigned budget.


Tall ship ARC Gloria, insignia of Colombia
Tall ship ARC Gloria, insignia of Colombia

The executive branch of government is in charge of managing the defense affairs of Colombia with the President of Colombia being the supreme chief of the armed forces, followed by the Minister of Defense, which controls the Military of Colombia and the Colombian National Police among other institutions. The Colombian military is divided into three branches with their respective chains of command; the Colombian National Army, the Colombian Air Force and the Colombian National Armada.

The national police functions as a gendarmerie independently from the Military as a the law enforcement agency for the entire country. Each of these operating with their own intelligence apparatus and also separately form the national intelligence agency Departamento Administrativo de Seguridad. The National Police has a presence in all municipality seats of Colombia, while the National Army is formed by divisions, regiments and special units, the Colombian National Armada is formed by the Colombian Marine Corps, Naval Force of the Pacific, Naval Force of the Caribbean, Naval Force of the South, Colombia Coast Guards, Naval Aviation and the Specific Command of San Andres y Providencia, the Colombian Air Force is formed by combat air commands units supported by other air support units.

Foreign affairs

The Foreign affairs of Colombia are headed by the President of Colombia and managed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Colombia has diplomatic missions in all the continents, but not in all countries, and also multilateral relations with Brussels (Mission to the European Union) Geneva (Permanent Mission to the United Nations and other International Organizations) Montevideo (Permanent Missions to ALADI and MERCOSUR) Nairobi (Permanent Missions to the United Nations and other International Organizations) New York City (Permanent Mission to the United Nations) Paris (Permanent Mission to UNESCO) Rome (Permanent Mission to FAO) Washington DC (Permanent Mission to the Organization of American States).

The foreign relations of Colombia are mostly concentrated on combating illegal drug trade, improving Colombian image in the international community, fight against terrorism, expanding the Colombian products in the global market and environmental issues. Colombia receives special military and commercial cooperation and support from the United States mainly through Plan Colombia to fight against the internal armed groups as well as special financial preferences from the European Union in certain products.

Politics of Colombia

Voters concentrate in a voting center during the legislative elections of 2006. As a rule, voters are not allowed to wear political propaganda in allusion to a candidate or party, or have electronic devices on their possession while voting.
Voters concentrate in a voting centre during the legislative elections of 2006. As a rule, voters are not allowed to wear political propaganda in allusion to a candidate or party, or have electronic devices on their possession while voting.

The Politics of Colombia take place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic as established in the Colombian Constitution of 1991. The constitution vested the National Electoral Council along with the National Registry of the Civil State with the function of organizing and controlling the electoral process in Colombia. Since the 2005 reform the electoral process abides by the Law 974 of 2005 which modified the way political parties organize and interact in the government. Colombia goes through three electoral processes to elect candidates for a period of four years; a Presidential election, for president and vice president candidates (authorized to serve one reelection, 8 years), a legislative election for congress; senate and chamber of representatives (authorized many terms through reelection) and a regional election to elect department governors, department assemblies, municipal mayors and municipal councils and Local administrative juntas (executive regional leaders are only authorized one term in office).

The last presidential and legislative elections were on May 28, 2006, in which president Álvaro Uribe was reelected by a vote of 62%, with 22% going to Carlos Gaviria of the Democratic Pole, and 12% to Horacio Serpa of the Liberal Party. Colombia's bicameral parliament is the Congress of Colombia consists of a 166-seat Chamber of Representatives of Colombia and a 102-seat Senate of Colombia. Members of both houses are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. With congressmen, Colombia also elects the president. Department deputies, city councils and mayors are elected one year and five months after the president's and congressmen's election. The latest regional election was on October 28, 2007 with some 27 million Colombians apt to vote to elect between some 86 thousand candidates to represent 1,098 Colombian municipalities and 32 governors of Colombian Departments. Colombian authorities mobilized 167,559 soldiers and policemen in order to vigil the 9,950 voting sites.

The election process in the judicial system is headed by the Constitutional Court and members are appointed by the Congress of Colombia out of nominations made by the President and other high ranking tribunals, presidents of courts in the other hand are elected in internal elections. In Electoral Institutions and Control Institutions of Colombia officials are also appointed by the president and approved by congress like the Inspector General of Colombia.


GDP growth 2005I-2007III
GDP growth 2005I-2007III

Colombia's economy is fueled by abundant natural resources, a highly literate population and relatively high-valued currency. After experiencing decades of steady growth (average GDP growth exceeded 4% in the 1970-1998 period), Colombia experienced a recession in 1999 (the first full year of negative growth since 1929), and the recovery from that recession was long and painful. Colombia's economy suffers from weak domestic and foreign demand, austere government budgets, and serious internal armed conflicts.

Plantation of Colombian coffee, Quindio. Coffee is the main agricultural export of Colombia.
Plantation of Colombian coffee, Quindio. Coffee is the main agricultural export of Colombia.

The IMF Economic Indicators published on September 2006, forecast the Colombian GDP to reach US$156.69 billion in 2008. Inflation has been below 6% for 2004, 2005, and 2006. Colombia's main exports include manufactured goods (41.32% of exports), petroleum (28.28%), coal (13.17%), and coffee (6.25%). Unofficially, illegal drugs are also a major export. Colombia is one of the largest producers of pop-up books in the world.

Colombia is also the largest exporter of plantains to the United States. Within Latin America, Colombia is known as a provider of fine lingerie, with the industry being centered in Medellín. All imports, exports, and the general trade balance are in record levels, and the inflow of export dollars has resulted in substantial revaluation of the Colombian Peso.

The problems facing the country range from pension system problems to drug dealing to moderately high unemployment (12%). Several international financial institutions have praised the economic reforms introduced by current President Álvaro Uribe, which include measures designed to bring the public-sector deficit below 2.5% of gross domestic product (GDP). The government's economic policy and its controversial democratic security strategy have engendered a growing sense of confidence in the economy, and GDP growth in 2003 was among the highest in Latin America. On May 28, 2007, the American magazine BusinessWeek published an article naming Colombia the most Extreme Emerging Market on Earth.


Tourists in Cartagena.
Tourists in Cartagena.

The Tourism industry in Colombia developed in the 1940s and has maintained a steady growth since then. The main touristic destinations are Bogotá, Cartagena, Eje cafetero, Santa Marta, Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, San Andrés Island among others, each presenting different tourist attractions. There are different tourist season in Colombia, the two most busy are related to religious celebrations; the holy week and Christmas among other numerous public holidays, including the celebrations surrounding the Independence of Colombia.

The most notable festivities are the Cali's Fair, the Barranquilla's Carnival, the Bogotá summer festival, the Iberoamerican Theatre Festival, the Festival of the Flowers, the Vallenato Legend Festival, Carnival of Blacks and Whites and the Fiestas del Mar. Despite Travel advisories warning not to travel to Colombia due to Colombian armed conflict, the country continues to attract more tourists in recent years. The apparent cause appears to be the current hardline approach of President Álvaro Uribe called democratic security to push rebels groups farther away from the major cities, highways and tourist sites that may attract international visitors. Since President Uribe took office in 2002, he has notably increased Colombia's stability and security by significantly boosting its military strength and police presence throughout the country.

Arrecifes beach at the Tayrona Park, one of main eco-touristic destinations.
Arrecifes beach at the Tayrona Park, one of main eco-touristic destinations.

This apparently has achieved fruitful results for the country's economy, particularly international tourism. In 2006, Colombia received some 1.5 million international visitors, an astonishing increase of about 50% from the previous year. Lonely Planet, a world travel publisher, has picked Colombia as one of their top 10 world destinations for 2006. The World Tourism Organization reported in 2004 that Colombia achieved the third highest percentage increase of tourist arrivals in South America between 2000 and 2004 (9.2%). Only Peru and Suriname had higher increases during the same period. Because of the improved security, Caribbean cruise ships tours stop in Cartagena and Santa Marta. To further point out the improved security in the country, in June 2007, the Travel Channel's show, 5 Takes Latin America, aired an episode on Colombia. Points of interest on the show were Bogotá, Cocora Valley in Salento, and the Salt Cathedral of Zipaquirá.

The varied and rich geography, flora and fauna of Colombia has also developed an eco-touristic industry, mostly developed in the National Natural Parks of Colombia which include the areas of Amacayacu Park in the Department of Amazonas, Colombian National Coffee Park in the town of Montenegro, Quindío, the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Los Nevados National Park (near the city of Manizales), Cocora valley in Salento, Quindío, PANACA theme Park, PANACA Savanna Park, Tayrona Park in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range (near the city of Santa Marta), the Tatacoa Desert, the Chicamocha Canyon National Park, Gorgona and Malpelo islands, as well as Cabo de la Vela in the Guajira Peninsula.


Occidente tunnel, Antioquia.
Occidente tunnel, Antioquia.

Colombia has a network of national highways maintained by the Instituto Nacional de Vías or INVIAS (National Institute of Roadways) government agency under the Ministry of Transport. The Pan-American Highway travels through Colombia, connecting the country with Venezuela to the east and Ecuador to the south.

Colombia's principal airport is El Dorado International Airport in Bogotá. Several national airlines ( Avianca, AeroRepública, AIRES , SATENA and Easy Fly, ), and international airlines (such as Iberia, American Airlines, Varig, Copa, Continental, Delta, Air Canada, Air France, Aerolineas Argentinas, Aerogal, TAME, TACA) operate from El Dorado. Bogotá's airport is one of the largest and most expensive in Latin America. Because of its central location in Colombia and America, it is preferred by national land transportation providers, as well as national and international air transportation providers.


Colombian people at the Cali's Fair
Colombian people at the Cali's Fair

With approximately 43.6 million people in 2006, Colombia is the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico.

Movement from rural to urban areas was very heavy in the mid-twentieth century, but has since tapered off. The urban population increased from 31% of the total population in 1938, to 57% in 1951 and about 70% by 1990. Currently the figure is about 77%. Thirty cities have a population of 100,000 or more. The nine eastern lowlands departments, constituting about 54% of Colombia's area, have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer (two persons per sq mi.). Colombia's total population in 2015 is projected to be more than 52 million.

Afro-Colombian kids
Afro-Colombian kids

The country has a diverse population that reflects its colourful history and the peoples that have populated here from ancient times to the present. The historic amalgam of the different main groups forms the basics of Colombia's current demographics: European immigrants, Indigenous Natives, Africans, Asians, Middle Easterners and other recent immigrants. Many of the indigenous peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remaining 700,000 currently represent over eighty-five distinct cultures. The European immigrants were primarily Spanish colonists, but a good number of other Europeans ( Dutch, German, French, Swiss, Belgian, also many North Americans migrated to the Caribbean region in the late XIX early XX century, in smaller numbers Polish, Lithuanian, English and Croatian communities) immigrated during the Second World War and the Cold War. For example, former Bogotá mayor Antanas Mockus is the son of Lithuanian immigrants. Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the sixteenth century, and continuing into the nineteenth century. Other immigrant populations include Asians and Middle Easterners, particularly Lebanese, Jordanians, Syrians, Chinese, Japanese and Koreans.

Indigenous peoples

Before the Spanish colonization of the region that would become the country of Colombia, the territory was the home of many different indigenous peoples. Today more than fifty different indigenous ethnic groups exist in Colombia. Most of them speak languages belonging to the Chibchan and Cariban linguistic families. The Colombian government has established 567 reserves for indigenous peoples and they are inhabitated by more than 800,000 persons. Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Arhuacos, the Muisca, the Kuna people, the Witoto, the Páez, the Tucano, the Wayuu and the Guahibo.

Immigrant groups

Because of its strategic location Colombia has received several immigration waves during its history. Most of these immigrants have settled in the Caribbean Coast; Barranquilla (the largest city in the Colombian Caribbean Coast) has the largest population of Arab Lebanese, Jewish, Italian, German, American, Chinese, French, Portuguese and Gypsy descendants. There are also important communities of German and Chinese descendants in the Caribbean Coast.

Ethnic groups

The census data in Colombia does not take into account ethnicity, so percentages are basically estimates from other sources and can vary from one another. Statistics reveal that Colombians are predominantly Roman Catholic and overwhelmingly speakers of Spanish, and that a majority of them are the result of the a mixture of Europeans, Africans, Amerindians.

58% of the population is mestizo, or of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry, while 20% is of European ancestry. Another 14% is mulatto, or of mixed black African and European ancestry, while 4% is of black African ancestry and 3% are zambos, of mixed black African and Amerindian ancestry. Pure indigenous Amerindians comprise 1 percent of the population. There are 101 languages listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database, of which 80 are spoken today as living languages. There are about 500,000 speakers of indigenous languages in Colombia today.

More than two-thirds of all Colombians live in urban areas—a figure significantly higher than the world average. The literacy rate (94 percent) in Colombia is also well above the world average, and the rate of population growth is slightly higher than the world average. Also, a large proportion of Colombians are young, largely because of recent decreases in the infant mortality rate. While 33 percent of the people are 14 years of age or younger, just 4 percent are aged 65 or older.


Che Square (or Santander Square), campus of the National University of Colombia in Bogotá. The National University is the largest state owned university in Colombia.
Che Square (or Santander Square), campus of the National University of Colombia in Bogotá. The National University is the largest state owned university in Colombia.

Over 93% of the entire population over 15 years of age can read and write, and this number has continued to increase throughout the years. Sixty percent of students complete primary schooling (5 years) and move onto secondary schooling(6 years). Most primary schools are private. Approximately 80 percent of Colombian children enter school, but they usually join a preschool academy until age 6 and then go to school. The school year extends from February to November in the capital city while in many other cities it extends from August to June. Primary education is free and compulsory for nine years for children between 6 and 12 years of age. The net primary enrollment (percentage of relevant age-group) in 2001 was 86.7 percent. The completion rate (percentage of age-group) for children attending elementary school (primaria) in 2001 totaled 89.5 percent. In many rural areas, teachers are poorly qualified, and only five years of primary school are offered. Secondary education (educación media) begins at age 11 and lasts up to six years, without any opportunity for vocational training. Secondary-school graduates are awarded the diploma (high-school diploma). Net secondary enrollment in 2001 was 53.5 percent. School life expectancy in 2001 was 11.1 years. Total public spending as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2001 was 4.4 percent—one of the highest rates in Latin America—as compared with 2.5 percent at the end of the 1980s. Government expenditures on education in 1999 totaled 19.7 percent of total government spending. The ratio of pupils to teachers in 2001 in primary school was 26:1 and in secondary school, 19:2. Colombia has 24 public universities. A total of 92.5 percent of the population is literate (male: 92.4 percent; female: 92.6 percent), according to a 2003 estimate. Literacy is at 93 percent in urban areas, but only 67 percent in rural areas. People in Colombia are educated in Spanish (see also Colombian Spanish). The second most spoken language is English.


Salt Cathedral in the town of Zipaquirá, Cundinamarca.
Salt Cathedral in the town of Zipaquirá, Cundinamarca.

The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are hard to obtain. Based on various studies, more than 95% of the population adheres to Christianity, in which a huge segment of the population, between 81% and 90%, practices Roman Catholicism. About 1% of Colombians practice indigenous religions.

Under 1% practice Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Despite strong numbers of adherents, around 60% of respondents to a poll by El Tiempo report that they do not practice their faith actively.

The Colombian constitution guarantees religious freedom, but also states that the State "is not atheist or agnostic, nor indifferent to Colombians' religious sentiment." Religious groups are readily able to obtain recognition as organized associations, but some smaller ones face difficulty in obtaining recognition as religious entities, which is required to offer chaplaincy services in public facilities.


Mounted Colombian National Police unit on patrol, City of Medellín.
Mounted Colombian National Police unit on patrol, City of Medellín.

Colombia has become notorious for its illicit drug production, kidnappings, and murder rate. In the 1990s, it became the world's largest producer of cocaine and coca derivatives. Cultivation of coca in 2000 was estimated at 402,782 acres (1,630 km²).

For some time Colombia also had the highest murder rate in the world at 62 murders per 100,000 people. However, it has descended in recent years to 39 murders per 100,000 people, bringing it down in the List of countries by murder rate below the levels of South Africa. Over 90 percent of the murdered are males. Regions like Putumayo, Guaviare and Arauca remain at 100 or more murders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2005.

Between 1992 and 1999 a total of 5,181 kidnappings, two-thirds of the world's reported, occurred in Colombia. In the year 2005, 800 kidnappings were reported, (73% less than in 2002) of which 35% were rescued in the same year. In 2005, 18,960 vehicles were stolen (37% less than in 2002) and 18,111 persons were murdered (38% less than in 2002).

Coca cultivation is a major illegal business in Colombia. In several rural regions, large tracts of land have been used for coca plant cultivation. According to U.S. figures, in 2004 an estimated 281,947 acres (1,141 km²) of land were used to grow the plant, and the nation had a producing potential of 430,000 metric tons of cocaine per year. According to a United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime survey, coca cultivation was estimated at 212,511 acres (860 km²) in December 2006.

In the year of 2006 the Colombian government had destroyed around 180,387 acres (730 km²) beating all records in coca plant destruction. The Colombian government now plans to destroy around 123,553 acres (500 km²) of coca plants in 2007 and they claim there will be only around 49,421 acres (200 km²) left, which they claim will be destroyed in 2008. While Colombian efforts to eradicate the coca plant have displaced production, they have not diminished the area on which the crop is harvested.This disputes the Colombian claim that coca will be eradicated in 2008.

Human rights

According to Amnesty International's Annual Report 2006, "Although the number of killings and kidnappings in some parts of the country fell, serious human rights abuses committed by all parties to the conflict remained at critical levels. Of particular concern were reports of extrajudicial executions carried out by the security forces, killings of civilians by armed opposition groups and paramilitaries, and the forced displacement of civilian communities." More than 3.5 million civilians out of the country’s 40 million people have been displaced during the last two decades, according to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre.

"Women comprise over 55 percent of Colombia’s internally displaced population (IDP). According to the Profamilia study, conducted from 2000 to 2001, one displaced woman in five is a victim of sexual violence; many suffer unwanted pregnancies." The victims, as reported by Ms. Magazine, have sometimes resorted to illegal abortions. In 2007, abortion was decriminalized in the cases of rape, when a fetus is expected to die, and when the mother's life or health is endangered.

According to Amnesty International, "Paramilitaries who had supposedly demobilized under the terms of a controversial law ratified in July continued to commit human rights violations, while armed opposition groups continued to commit serious and widespread breaches of international humanitarian law. Individuals who may have been responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity were not brought to justice." The Justice and Peace law, together with other legal mechanisms such as Decree 128, provides legal and economic benefits to demobilized paramilitaries. More than 25,000 paramilitary members are taking advantage of the demobilization process. Amnesty International believes that some have concealed their paramilitary activities by using different names or acting as civilian informers and civic guards.

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