### ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ # Mathematician

### List of African Origin inventors and scientists Leonhard Euler is widely considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time

A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and/or research is the field of mathematics. Some notable mathematicians include Sir Isaac Newton, Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss, Archimedes of Syracuse, Leonhard Paul Euler, Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, Euclid of Alexandria, Jules Henri Poincaré, David Hilbert, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, and Pierre de Fermat.

## Problems in Mathematics

The publication of new discoveries in mathematics continues at an immense rate in hundreds of scientific journals. One of the most exciting recent developments was the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Andrew Wiles, following 350 years of the brightest mathematical minds attempting to settle the problem.

There are many famous open problems in mathematics, many dating back tens, if not hundreds or over two thousand years. Some examples include the ancient problems related to perfect (and multiply perfect) numbers, the Riemann hypothesis (from 1859) and Goldbach's conjecture (1742). The Millennium Prize Problems highlight longstanding, important problems in mathematics and offers a US\$1,000,000 reward for solving any one of them. One of these problems, the Poincaré conjecture (1904), was proven by Russian mathematician Grigori Perelman in a paper released in 2003; peer review was completed in 2006, and the proof was accepted as valid.

## Motivation

Mathematicians are people who do research in fields such as number theory, topology, modern algebra, differential topology, functional analysis etc. Most problems and theorems come from within mathematics itself, or are inspired by theoretical physics. To a lesser extent, problems have come from economics, games, and computer science. Some problems are simply created for the challenge of solving them. Mathematics has challenged and fascinated minds for thousands of years, and today it is a prerequisite for physics, computer science, chemistry, and many other sciences.

No Nobel Prize is awarded for Mathematics. The award that is generally viewed as having the highest prestige in mathematics is the Fields Medal. This medal, sometimes described as the "Nobel Prize of Mathematics", is awarded once every four years to as many as four young (under 40 years old) awardees at a time, for outstanding mathematical research. Other prominent prizes include the Abel Prize, the Nemmers Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Schock Prize, and the Nevanlinna Prize.

## Differences

Mathematics differs from natural sciences in that physical theories in the sciences are tested by experiments, while mathematical statements are supported by proofs which may be verified objectively by mathematicians. If a certain statement is believed to be true by mathematicians (typically because special cases have been confirmed to some degree) but has neither been proven nor dis-proven, it is called a conjecture, as opposed to the ultimate goal: a theorem that is proven true. Physical theories may be expected to change whenever new information about our physical world is discovered. Mathematics changes in a different way: new ideas don't falsify old ones but rather are used to generalize what was known before to capture a broader range of phenomena. For instance, calculus (in one variable) generalizes to multivariable calculus, which generalizes to analysis on manifolds. The development of algebraic geometry from its classical to modern forms is a particularly striking example of the way an area of mathematics can change radically in its viewpoint without making what was proved before in any way incorrect. While a theorem, once proved, is true forever, our understanding of what the theorem really means gains in profundity as the mathematics around the theorem grows. A mathematician feels that a theorem is better understood when it can be extended to apply in a broader setting than previously known. For instance, Fermat's little theorem for the nonzero integers modulo a prime generalizes to Euler's theorem for the invertible numbers modulo any nonzero integer, which generalizes to Lagrange's theorem for finite groups.

## Doctoral degree statistics for mathematicians in the United States

The number of Doctoral degrees in mathematics awarded each year in the United States has ranged from 750 to 1230 over the past 35 years. In the early seventies, degree awards were at their peak, followed by a decline throughout the seventies, a rise through the eighties, and another peak through the nineties. Unemployment for new doctoral recipients peaked at 10.7% in 1994 but was as low as 3.3% by 2000. The percentage of female doctoral recipients increased from 15% in 1980 to 30% in 2000.

As of 2000, there are approximately 21,000 full-time faculty positions in mathematics at colleges and universities in the United States. Of these positions about 36% are at institutions whose highest degree granted in mathematics is a bachelor's degree, 23% at institutions that offer a master's degree and 41% at institutions offering a doctoral degree.

The median age for doctoral recipients in 1999-2000 was 30, and the mean age was 31.7.

## Women in mathematics Emmy Noether

While the majority of mathematicians are male, there have been some demographic changes since World War II. Some prominent female mathematicians are Hypatia of Alexandria (ca. 400 AD), Labana of Cordoba (ca. 1000), Ada Lovelace (1815–1852), Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718–1799), Emmy Noether (1882–1935), Sophie Germain (1776–1831), Sofia Kovalevskaya (1850–1891), Rózsa Péter (1905–1977), Julia Robinson (1919–1985), Olga Taussky-Todd (1906–1995), Émilie du Châtelet (1706–1749), and Mary Cartwright (1900–1998).

The Association for Women in Mathematics is a professional society whose purpose is "to encourage women and girls to study and to have active careers in the mathematical sciences, and to promote equal opportunity and the equal treatment of women and girls in the mathematical sciences." The American Mathematical Society and other mathematical societies offer several prizes aimed at increasing the representation of women and minorities in the future of mathematics.

The following are quotations about mathematicians, or by mathematicians.

A mathematician is a device for turning coffee into theorems.
—Attributed to both Alfréd Rényi and Paul Erdős
Die Mathematiker sind eine Art Franzosen; redet man mit ihnen, so übersetzen sie es in ihre Sprache, und dann ist es alsobald ganz etwas anderes. (Mathematicians are [like] a sort of Frenchmen; if you talk to them, they translate it into their own language, and then it is immediately something quite different.)
—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Each generation has its few great mathematicians...and [the others'] research harms no one.
—Alfred W. Adler (1930- ), "Mathematics and Creativity"
In short, I never yet encountered the mere mathematician who could be trusted out of equal roots, or one who did not clandestinely hold it as a point of his faith that x squared + px was absolutely and unconditionally equal to q. Say to one of these gentlemen, by way of experiment, if you please, that you believe occasions may occur where x squared + px is not altogether equal to q, and, having made him understand what you mean, get out of his reach as speedily as convenient, for, beyond doubt, he will endeavor to knock you down.
—Edgar Allan Poe, The purloined letter
A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a maker of patterns. If his patterns are more permanent than theirs, it is because they are made with ideas.
—G. H. Hardy, A Mathematician's Apology
Some of you may have met mathematicians and wondered how they got that way.
—Tom Lehrer
It is impossible to be a mathematician without being a poet in soul.
—Sofia Kovalevskaya

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