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Mineral acid

Acids and bases:
  • Acid dissociation constant
  • Acid-base extraction
  • Acid-base reaction
  • Acid-base homeostasis
  • Dissociation constant
  • Acidity function
  • Buffer solutions
  • pH
  • Proton affinity
  • Self-ionization of water
  • Acids:
    • Lewis acids
    • Mineral acids
    • Organic acids
    • Strong acids
    • Superacids
    • Weak acids
  • Bases:
    • Lewis bases
    • Organic bases
    • Strong bases
    • Superbases
    • Non-nucleophilic bases
    • Weak bases

A mineral acid is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds. A mineral acid does not contain any carbon atoms and all mineral acids release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.


Commonly used mineral acids are sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. Mineral acids range from acids of great strength (example: sulfuric acid) to very weak (boric acid). Mineral acids tend to be very soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvents.

Mineral acids are used in many sectors of the chemical industry as feedstocks for the synthesis of other chemicals, both organic and inorganic. Large quantities of these acids, especially sulfuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid are manufactured for commercial use in large plants.

Mineral acids are also used directly for their corrosive properties. For example, a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid is used for removing the deposits from the inside of boilers, with precautions taken to prevent the corrosion of the boiler by the acid. This process is known as de-scaling.


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