Religious and philosophical views of Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein, 1921

Albert Einstein's religious views have been widely studied and often misunderstood.[1] Albert Einstein stated "I believe in Spinoza's God".[2] He did not believe in a personal God who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings, a view which he described as naïve.[3] He clarified however that, "I am not an atheist",[4] preferring to call himself an agnostic,[5] or a "religious nonbeliever."[3] In other interviews, he stated that he thought that there is a "lawgiver" who sets the laws of the universe.[6] Einstein also stated he did not believe in life after death, adding "one life is enough for me."[7] He was closely involved in his lifetime with several humanist groups.[8][9] Einstein rejected a conflict between science and religion, and held that cosmic religion was necessary for science.[10]

  1. ^ Stachel, John (10 December 2001). Einstein from 'B' to 'Z'. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8176-4143-6.
  2. ^ Einstein, Albert (11 October 2010). Calaprice, Alice (ed.). The Ultimate Quotable Einstein. Princeton University Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-1-4008-3596-6.
  3. ^ a b Calaprice, Alice (2000). The Expanded Quotable Einstein. Princeton: Princeton University Press, p. 218.
  4. ^ Isaacson, Walter (2008). Einstein: His Life and Universe. New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 390.
  5. ^ Calaprice, Alice (2010). The Ultimate Quotable Einstein. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, p. 340. Letter to M. Berkowitz, 25 October 1950. Einstein Archive 59-215.
  6. ^ Hermanns, William (1983). Einstein and the poet: in search of the cosmic man. Brookline Village: Branden. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8283-1873-0.
  7. ^ Isaacson, Walter (2008). Einstein: His Life and Universe. New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 461.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference MercifulEnd was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference IdeasOpinions was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference JHU Press, 2005 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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