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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (/ˈaɪnstaɪn/ EYEN-styne; German: [ˈalbɛɐt ˈʔaɪnʃtaɪn] ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is...

Last Update: 2024-02-23T05:28:44Z Word Count : 22235

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Hans Albert Einstein

Hans Albert Einstein (May 14, 1904 – July 26, 1973) was a Swiss-American engineer and educator of German and Serbian origin, the second child and first...

Last Update: 2024-01-29T20:27:38Z Word Count : 1174

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Einstein family

The Einstein family is the family of physicist Albert Einstein (1879–1955). Einstein's great-great-great-great-grandfather, Jakob Weil, was his oldest...

Last Update: 2024-02-19T02:47:13Z Word Count : 3081

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Albert Brooks

Albert Brooks (born Albert Lawrence Einstein; July 22, 1947) is an American actor, comedian, director and screenwriter. He received an Academy Award nomination...

Last Update: 2024-02-11T19:26:19Z Word Count : 2047

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Brain of Albert Einstein

The brain of Albert Einstein has been a subject of much research and speculation. Albert Einstein's brain was removed within seven and a half hours of...

Last Update: 2024-02-20T10:03:49Z Word Count : 2761

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Albert Einstein House

The Albert Einstein House at 112 Mercer Street in Princeton, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, was the home of Albert Einstein from 1935 until...

Last Update: 2024-02-10T10:51:53Z Word Count : 685

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Outline of Albert Einstein

outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Albert Einstein: Albert Einstein – deceased German-born theoretical physicist. He developed...

Last Update: 2024-01-27T13:18:28Z Word Count : 736

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Political views of Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (1879–1955), a German-born scientist, was predominantly known during his lifetime for his development of the theory of relativity, his...

Last Update: 2024-02-23T12:10:37Z Word Count : 7196

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Albert Einstein (disambiguation)

Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. Albert Einstein may also refer to: Albert Lawrence Einstein, the birth name of actor, comedian...

Last Update: 2023-04-16T21:39:33Z Word Count : 501

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Religious and philosophical views of Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein's religious views have been widely studied and often misunderstood. Albert Einstein stated "I believe in Spinoza's God". He did not believe...

Last Update: 2024-02-19T09:40:48Z Word Count : 10023

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Main result

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein ( EYEN-styne; German: [ˈalbɛɐt ˈʔaɪnʃtaɪn] ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely held to be one of the greatest and most influential scientists of all time. Best known for developing the theory of relativity, Einstein also made important contributions to quantum mechanics, and was thus a central figure in the revolutionary reshaping of the scientific understanding of nature that modern physics accomplished in the first decades of the twentieth century. His mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which arises from relativity theory, has been called "the world's most famous equation". He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory. His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. In a 1999 poll of 130 leading physicists worldwide by the British journal Physics World, Einstein was ranked the greatest physicist of all time. His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word Einstein broadly synonymous with genius.Born in the German Empire, Einstein moved to Switzerland in 1895, forsaking his German citizenship (as a subject of the Kingdom of Württemberg) the following year. In 1897, at the age of seventeen, he enrolled in the mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Swiss federal polytechnic school in Zürich, graduating in 1900. In 1901, he acquired Swiss citizenship, which he kept for the rest of his life. In 1903, he secured a permanent position at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. In 1905, he submitted a successful PhD dissertation to the University of Zurich. In 1914, he moved to Berlin in order to join the Prussian Academy of Sciences and the Humboldt University of Berlin. In 1917, he became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics; he also became a German citizen again, this time as a subject of the Kingdom of Prussia.In 1933, while he was visiting the United States, Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany. Horrified by the Nazi "war of extermination" against his fellow Jews, Einstein decided to remain in the US, and was granted American citizenship in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential German nuclear weapons program and recommending that the US begin similar research. Einstein supported the Allies but generally viewed the idea of nuclear weapons with great dismay.In 1905, sometimes described as his annus mirabilis (miracle year), Einstein published four groundbreaking papers. These outlined a theory of the photoelectric effect, explained Brownian motion, introduced his special theory of relativity—a theory which addressed the inability of classical mechanics to account satisfactorily for the behavior of the electromagnetic field—and demonstrated that if the special theory is correct, mass and energy are equivalent to each other. In 1915, he proposed a general theory of relativity that extended his system of mechanics to incorporate gravitation. A cosmological paper that he published the following year laid out the implications of general relativity for the modeling of the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. The middle part of his career also saw him making important contributions to statistical mechanics and quantum theory. Especially notable was his work on the quantum physics of radiation, in which light consists of particles, subsequently called photons. For much of the last phase of his academic life, Einstein worked on two endeavors that proved ultimately unsuccessful. Firstly, he advocated against quantum theory's introduction of fundamental randomness into science's picture of the world, objecting that "God does not play dice". Secondly, he attempted to devise a unified field theory by generalizing his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism too. As a result, he became increasingly isolated from the mainstream of modern physics.


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