Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews
יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז‎ (Yehudei Ashkenaz)
Total population
10[1]–11.2[2] million
Regions with significant populations
 United States5–6 million[3]
 Israel2.8 million[1][4]
 Russia194,000–500,000; according to the FJCR, up to 1 million of Jewish descent.
 United Kingdom260,000
 South Africa80,000
 New Zealand5,000
 Czech Republic3,000
Judaism (major)
Christianity (minor)[citation needed]
Related ethnic groups
Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Samaritans;[6][7][8] Kurds,[8] other Levantines,[7] Assyrians,[6][7] Arabs,[6][7][9][10] Mediterranean groups (Greeks, Italians,[11][12] Spaniards)[13][14][15][16][17]
The Jews in Central Europe (1881)

Ashkenazi Jews (/ˌɑːʃkəˈnɑːzi, ˌæʃ-/ AHSH-kə-NAH-zee, ASH-;[18] Hebrew: יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז, romanizedYehudei Ashkenaz, lit.'Jews of Germania'; Yiddish: אַשכּנזישע ייִדן, romanizedAshkenazishe Eydn), also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim,[a] are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium CE.[20] Their traditional diaspora language is Yiddish (a West Germanic language with Jewish linguistic elements, including the Hebrew alphabet),[20] which developed during the Middle Ages after they had moved from Germany and France into Northern Europe and Eastern Europe. For centuries, Ashkenazim in Europe used Hebrew only as a sacred language until the revival of Hebrew as a common language in 20th-century Israel.

Throughout their numerous centuries living in Europe, Ashkenazim have made many important contributions to its philosophy, scholarship, literature, art, music, and science.[21][22][23][24]

The rabbinical term Ashkenazi refers to diaspora Jews who established communities along the Rhine in western Germany and northern France during the Middle Ages.[25] Upon their arrival, they adapted traditions carried over from the Holy Land, Babylonia, and the western Mediterranean to their new European environment.[26] The Ashkenazi religious rite developed in cities such as Mainz, Worms, and Troyes. The eminent rishon from medieval France, Shlomo Itzhaki, has had a significant influence on the interpretations of Judaism by Ashkenazim.

In the late Middle Ages, due to widespread persecution, the majority of the Ashkenazi population steadily shifted eastward,[27] moving out of the Holy Roman Empire into the areas that later became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; these areas today comprise parts of present-day Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine.[28][29]

Over the course of the late-18th and 19th centuries, those Jews who remained in or returned to historical German lands generated a cultural reorientation; under the influence of the Haskalah and the struggle for emancipation as well as the intellectual and cultural ferment in urban centres, they gradually abandoned the use of Yiddish and adopted German while developing new forms of Jewish religious life and cultural identity.[30]

It is estimated that in the 11th century, Ashkenazim comprised 3 percent of the global Jewish population, while an estimate made in 1930 (near the population's peak) listed them as comprising 92 percent of the world's Jewish population.[31] However, the Ashkenazi population was decimated shortly after as a result of the Holocaust that was carried out by Nazi Germany during World War II, which affected almost every Jewish European family.[32][33] Immediately prior to the Holocaust, the worldwide Jewish population stood at approximately 16.7 million people.[34][better source needed] Statistical figures vary for the contemporary demography of Ashkenazi Jews, ranging from 10 million[1] to 11.2 million.[2] Israeli demographer and statistician Sergio D. Pergola, in a rough calculation of Sephardi Jews and Mizrahi Jews, implies that Ashkenazi Jews made up 65–70 percent of Jews worldwide in 2000.[35] Other estimates place the Ashkenazim as comprising upwards of 75 percent of the global Jewish population.[36]

Genetic studies on Ashkenazi Jews—researching both their paternal and maternal lineages as well as autosomal DNA—indicate that they are of mixed Levantine and European (mainly western European and southern European) ancestry. These studies have arrived at diverging conclusions regarding both the degree and the sources of their European admixture, with some focusing on the extent of the European genetic origin observed in Ashkenazi maternal lineages, which is in contrast to the predominant Middle Eastern genetic origin observed in Ashkenazi paternal lineages.[37][38][39][40]

  1. ^ a b c "Ashkenazi Jews". Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  2. ^ a b "First genetic mutation for colorectal cancer identified in Ashkenazi Jews". The Gazette. Johns Hopkins University. 8 September 1997. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  3. ^ Feldman, Gabriel E. (May 2001). "Do Ashkenazi Jews have a Higher than expected Cancer Burden? Implications for cancer control prioritization efforts". Israel Medical Association Journal. 3 (5): 341–46. PMID 11411198. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  4. ^ Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2009, CBS. "Table 2.24 – Jews, by country of origin and age". Retrieved 22 March 2010.
  5. ^ "Yiddish". 19 November 2019.
  6. ^ a b c "Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d "Jews Are the Genetic Brothers of Palestinians, Syrians, and Lebanese". Science Daily. 9 May 2000. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  8. ^ a b "Study Finds Close Genetic Connection Between Jews, Kurds". Haaretz. 21 November 2001.
  9. ^ Wade, Nicholas (9 June 2010). "Studies Show Jews' Genetic Similarity". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  10. ^ "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews" (PDF). Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  11. ^ "Banda et al. "Admixture Estimation in a Founder Population". Am Soc Hum Genet, 2013". Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  12. ^ Bray, SM; Mulle, JG; Dodd, AF; Pulver, AE; Wooding, S; Warren, ST (September 2010). "Signatures of founder effects, admixture, and selection in the Ashkenazi Jewish population". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (37): 16222–27. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10716222B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1004381107. PMC 2941333. PMID 20798349.
  13. ^ Adams SM, Bosch E, Balaresque PL, et al. (December 2008). "The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (6): 725–36. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. PMC 2668061. PMID 19061982.
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference pmid17044734 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference Costa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ Shai Carmi; Ken Y. Hui; Ethan Kochav; Xinmin Liu; James Xue; Fillan Grady; Saurav Guha; Kinnari Upadhyay; Dan Ben-Avraham; Semanti Mukherjee; B. Monica Bowen; Tinu Thomas; Joseph Vijai; Marc Cruts; Guy Froyen; Diether Lambrechts; Stéphane Plaisance; Christine Van Broeckhoven; Philip Van Damme; Herwig Van Marck; et al. (September 2014). "Sequencing an Ashkenazi reference panel supports population-targeted personal genomics and illuminates Jewish and European origins". Nature Communications. 5: 4835. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5.4835C. doi:10.1038/ncomms5835. PMC 4164776. PMID 25203624.
  18. ^ a b Wells, John (3 April 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  19. ^ Ashkenaz, based on Josephus. AJ. 1.6.1., Perseus Project AJ1.6.1, . and his explanation of Genesis 10:3, is considered to be the progenitor of the ancient Gauls (the people of Gallia, meaning, mainly the people from modern France, Belgium, and the Alpine region) and the ancient Franks (of, both, France, and Germany). According to Gedaliah ibn Jechia the Spaniard, in the name of Sefer Yuchasin (see: Gedaliah ibn Jechia, Shalshelet Ha-Kabbalah, Jerusalem 1962, p. 219; p. 228 in PDF), the descendants of Ashkenaz had also originally settled in what was then called Bohemia, which today is the present-day Czech Republic. These places, according to the Jerusalem Talmud (Megillah 1:9 [10a], were also called simply by the diocese "Germamia". Germania, Germani, Germanica have all been used to refer to the group of peoples comprising the Germanic tribes, which include such peoples as Goths, whether Ostrogoths or Visigoths, Vandals and Franks, Burgundians, Alans, Langobards, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Suebi and Alamanni. The entire region east of the Rhine river was known by the Romans as "Germania" (Germany).
  20. ^ a b Mosk, Carl (2013). Nationalism and economic development in modern Eurasia. New York: Routledge. p. 143. ISBN 9780415605182. In general the Ashkenazi originally came out of the Holy Roman Empire, speaking a version of German that incorporates Hebrew and Slavic words, Yiddish.
  21. ^ Henry L. Feingold (1995). Bearing Witness: How America and Its Jews Responded to the Holocaust. Syracuse University Press. p. 36. ISBN 9780815626701.
  22. ^ Eric Hobsbawm (2002). Interesting Times: A Twentieth Century Life. Abacus Books. p. 25.
  23. ^ Glenda Abramson (ed.), Encyclopedia of Modern Jewish Culture, Routledge 2004 p. 20.
  24. ^ T. C. W. Blanning (ed.), The Oxford History of Modern Europe, Oxford University Press, 2000 pp. 147–48
  25. ^ "Ashkenazi - people". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  26. ^ Cite error: The named reference shum was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  27. ^ Ben-Sasson, Haim Hillel; et al. (2007). "Germany". In Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred (eds.). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Vol. 7 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference. p. 524. ISBN 978-0-02-866097-4.
  28. ^ Mosk (2013), p. 143. "Encouraged to move out of the Holy Roman Empire as persecution of their communities intensified during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the Ashkenazi community increasingly gravitated toward Poland."
  29. ^ Harshav, Benjamin (1999). The Meaning of Yiddish. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 6. "From the fourteenth and certainly by the sixteenth century, the center of European Jewry had shifted to Poland, then ... comprising the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (including today's Byelorussia), Crown Poland, Galicia, the Ukraine and stretching, at times, from the Baltic to the Black Sea, from the approaches to Berlin to a short distance from Moscow."
  30. ^ Ben-Sasson, Haim Hillel; et al. (2007). "Germany". In Berenbaum, Michael; Skolnik, Fred (eds.). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Vol. 7 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference. pp. 526–28. ISBN 978-0-02-866097-4. The cultural and intellectual reorientation of the Jewish minority was closely linked with its struggle for equal rights and social acceptance. While earlier generations had used solely the Yiddish and Hebrew languages among themselves, ... the use of Yiddish was now gradually abandoned, and Hebrew was by and large reduced to liturgical usage.
  31. ^ Brunner, José (2007). Demographie – Demokratie – Geschichte: Deutschland und Israel (in German). Wallstein Verlag. p. 197. ISBN 978-3835301351.
  32. ^ Yaacov Ro'i, "Soviet Jewry from Identification to Identity", in Eliezer Ben Rafael, Yosef Gorni, Yaacov Ro'i (eds.) Contemporary Jewries: Convergence and Divergence, Brill 2003 p. 186.
  33. ^ Dov Katz, "Languages of the Diaspora", in Mark Avrum Ehrlich (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO 2008 pp. 193ff [195].
  34. ^ "The Jewish Population of the World (2010)". Jewish Virtual Library., based on American Jewish Year Book. American Jewish Committee.
  35. ^ Sergio DellaPergola (2008). ""Sephardic and Oriental" Jews in Israel and Countries: Migration, Social Change, and Identification". In Peter Y. Medding (ed.). Sephardic Jewry and Mizrahi Jews. Vol. X11. Oxford University Press. pp. 3–42. ISBN 978-0199712502. Della Pergola does not analyze or mention the Ashkenazi statistics, but the figure is implied by his rough estimate that in 2000, Oriental and Sephardi Jews constituted 26% of the population of world Jewry.
  36. ^ Focus on Genetic Screening Research, ed. Sandra R. Pupecki, p. 58
  37. ^ Costa, Marta D.; Pereira, Joana B.; Pala, Maria; Fernandes, Verónica; Olivieri, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A.; Rychkov, Sergei; Naumova, Oksana; Hatina, Jiři; Woodward, Scott R.; Eng, Ken Khong; Macaulay, Vincent; Carr, Martin; Soares, Pedro; Pereira, Luísa; Richards, Martin B. (8 October 2013). "A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages". Nature Communications. 4 (1): 2543. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4.2543C. doi:10.1038/ncomms3543. PMC 3806353. PMID 24104924.
  38. ^ Behar, Doron M.; Ene Metspalu; Toomas Kivisild; Alessandro Achilli; Yarin Hadid; Shay Tzur; Luisa Pereira; Antonio Amorim; Lluı's Quintana-Murci; Kari Majamaa; Corinna Herrnstadt; Neil Howell; Oleg Balanovsky; Ildus Kutuev; Andrey Pshenichnov; David Gurwitz; Batsheva Bonne-Tamir; Antonio Torroni; Richard Villems; Karl Skorecki (March 2006). "The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 78 (3): 487–97. doi:10.1086/500307. PMC 1380291. PMID 16404693. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
  39. ^ Eva Fernández; Alejandro Pérez-Pérez; Cristina Gamba; Eva Prats; Pedro Cuesta; Josep Anfruns; Miquel Molist; Eduardo Arroyo-Pardo; Daniel Turbón (5 June 2014). "Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands". PLOS Genetics. 10 (6): e1004401. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401. PMC 4046922. PMID 24901650.
  40. ^ Xue J, Lencz T, Darvasi A, Pe'er I, Carmi S (April 2017). "The time and place of European admixture in Ashkenazi Jewish history". PLOS Genetics. 13 (4): e1006644. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006644. PMC 5380316. PMID 28376121.

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