Adrenal gland

Adrenal gland
Position of adrenal gland
PrecursorMesoderm and neural crest
SystemEndocrine system
ArterySuperior, middle and inferior suprarenal arteries
VeinSuprarenal veins
NerveCeliac and renal plexus
LymphLumbar lymph nodes
Latinglandula suprarenalis
Anatomical terminology

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.[1][2] They are found above the kidneys. Each gland has an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla. The adrenal cortex itself is divided into three main zones: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis.[3]

The adrenal cortex produces three main types of steroid hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens. Mineralocorticoids (such as aldosterone) produced in the zona glomerulosa help in the regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte balance. The glucocorticoids cortisol and cortisone are synthesized in the zona fasciculata; their functions include the regulation of metabolism and immune system suppression. The innermost layer of the cortex, the zona reticularis, produces androgens that are converted to fully functional sex hormones in the gonads and other target organs.[4] The production of steroid hormones is called steroidogenesis, and involves a number of reactions and processes that take place in cortical cells.[5] The medulla produces the catecholamines, which function to produce a rapid response throughout the body in stress situations.[4]

A number of endocrine diseases involve dysfunctions of the adrenal gland. Overproduction of cortisol leads to Cushing's syndrome, whereas insufficient production is associated with Addison's disease. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic disease produced by dysregulation of endocrine control mechanisms.[4][6] A variety of tumors can arise from adrenal tissue and are commonly found in medical imaging when searching for other diseases.[7]

  1. ^ Santulli G. MD (2015). Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence. Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-63483-570-1.
  2. ^ "Adrenal gland". Medline Plus/Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference ross was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference williams was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference miller auchus was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference harrison's was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference nieman was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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