A crown gall on Kalanchoe infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Galls can also appear on skeletal animals and in the fossil record. Two galls with perforations on a crinoid stem (Apiocrinites negevensis) from the Middle Jurassic of southern Israel.
Gall from a jade plant (Crassula ovata)

Galls (from the Latin galla, 'oak-apple') or cecidia (from the Greek kēkidion, anything gushing out) are a kind of swelling growth on the external tissues of plants, fungi, or animals. Plant galls are abnormal outgrowths[1] of plant tissues, similar to benign tumors or warts in animals. They can be caused by various parasites, from viruses, fungi and bacteria, to other plants, insects and mites. Plant galls are often highly organized structures so that the cause of the gall can often be determined without the actual agent being identified. This applies particularly to some insect and mite plant galls. The study of plant galls is known as cecidology.

In human pathology, a gall is a raised sore on the skin, usually caused by chafing or rubbing.[2]

  1. ^ "gall(4)", Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, accessed November 16, 2007: "an abnormal outgrowth of plant tissue usually due to insect or mite parasites or fungi and sometimes forming an important source of tannin".
  2. ^ "gall",

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