History of wine

Hellenistic mosaics discovered close to the city of Paphos depicting Dionysos, god of wine
Wine boy at a Greek symposium

Wine has been produced for thousands of years, with evidence of ancient wine production in Georgia from c. 6000 BC (the earliest known traces of wine),[1][2] West Azerbaijan province of Iran from c. 5000 BC,[3] Armenia from c. 4100 BC (large-scale production),[4][5][6][7][8] and Sicily from c. 4000 BC.[9] The earliest evidence of a grape and rice mixed based fermented drink sometimes compared to wine was found in ancient China (c. 7000 BC).[10][11][12][13][14]

The altered consciousness produced by wine has been considered religious since its origin. The ancient Greeks worshiped Dionysus or Bacchus and the Ancient Romans carried on his cult.[15][16] Consumption of ritual wine, probably a certain type of sweet wine originally, was part of Jewish practice since Biblical times and, as part of the eucharist commemorating Jesus's Last Supper, became even more essential to the Christian Church.[17] Although Islam nominally forbade the production or consumption of wine, during its Golden Age, alchemists such as Geber pioneered wine's distillation for medicinal and industrial purposes such as the production of perfume.[18]

Wine production and consumption increased, burgeoning from the 15th century onwards as part of European expansion. Despite the devastating 1887 phylloxera louse infestation, modern science and technology adapted and industrial wine production and wine consumption now occur throughout the world.

  1. ^ "'World's oldest wine' found in 8,000-year-old jars in Georgia". BBC News. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  2. ^ McGovern, Patrick; Jalabadze, Mindia; Batiuk, Stephen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Kvavadze, Eliso; Maghradze, David; Rusishvili, Nana; Bouby, Laurent; Failla, Osvaldo; Cola, Gabriele; Mariani, Luigi; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Bacilieri, Roberto; This, Patrice; Wales, Nathan; Lordkipanidze, David (13 November 2017). "Early Neolithic wine of Georgia in the South Caucasus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. PNAS. 114 (48): E10309–E10318. doi:10.1073/pnas.1714728114. PMC 5715782. PMID 29133421.[verification needed]
  3. ^ Ellsworth, Amy (18 July 2012). "7,000 Year-old Wine Jar". University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
  5. ^ Holding, Deirdre (September 2014). Armenia: with Nagorno Karabagh. The Globe Pequot Press Inc. p. 284. ISBN 9781841625553.
  6. ^ Johnson, Hugh (September 2014). Hugh Johnson's Pocket Wine Book 2019. Octopus Publishing Group. ISBN 9781784724825.
  7. ^ "Decanter". Decanter magazine. Vol. 36, Nummers 5-8. February 2011.
  8. ^ "Wine 4,100 B.C. – World's Oldest Winery Discovered". 27 August 2014.
  9. ^ Tondo, Lorenzo (30 August 2017). "Traces of 6,000-year-old wine discovered in Sicilian cave". The Guardian.
  10. ^ Li, Hua; Wang, Hua; Li, Huanmei; Goodman, Steve; Van Der Lee, Paul; Xu, Zhimin; Fortunato, Alessio; Yang, Ping (2018). "The worlds of wine: Old, new and ancient". Wine Economics and Policy. 7 (2): 178–182. doi:10.1016/j.wep.2018.10.002.
  11. ^ Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji, Isabel (2018). "New wine world from Asia Development, regional comparison and opportunities for the wine industry in China" (PDF). Universidad Politécnica de Madrid: 1. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Martín, Cristian; Rubio, Bartolomé (2018). "Smart Winery: A Real-Time Monitoring System for Structural Health and Ullage in Fino Style Wine Casks" (PDF). Sensors. 18 (3): 803. Bibcode:2018Senso..18..803C. doi:10.3390/s18030803. PMC 5876521. PMID 29518928.
  13. ^ Castro-Sowinski, Susana (17 November 2016). Microbial Models: From Environmental to Industrial Sustainability. Springer. p. 42. ISBN 9789811025556.
  14. ^ Hames, Gina (2010). Alcohol in World History. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 9781317548706.
  15. ^ The history of wine in ancient Greece Archived 12 July 2002 at the Wayback Machine at greekwinemakers.com
  16. ^ "UNESCO Pafos Archaeological Park".
  17. ^ DODD, EMLYN K. (2020). ROMAN AND LATE ANTIQUE WINE PRODUCTION IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN : a comparative ... archaeological study at antiochia ad cragum. [Place of publication not identified]: ARCHAEOPRESS. ISBN 978-1-78969-403-1. OCLC 1139263254.
  18. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources Archived 3 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine

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