Information technology

Information technology (IT) is a set of related fields that encompass computer systems, software, programming languages, and data and information processing, and storage.[1] IT forms part of information and communications technology (ICT).[2] An information technology system (IT system) is generally an information system, a communications system, or, more specifically speaking, a computer system — including all hardware, software, and peripheral equipment — operated by a limited group of IT users, and an IT project usually refers to the commissioning and implementation of an IT system.[3] IT systems play a vital role in facilitating efficient data management, enhancing communication networks, and supporting organizational processes across various industries. Successful IT projects require meticulous planning, seamless integration, and ongoing maintenance to ensure optimal functionality and alignment with organizational objectives.[4]

Although humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the earliest writing systems were developed,[5] the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)."[6] Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.[6]

The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.[7][a]

Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC — 1450 AD), mechanical (1450 — 1840), electromechanical (1840 — 1940), and electronic (1940 to present).[5]

Information technology is also a branch of computer science, which can be defined as the overall study of procedure, structure, and the processing of various types of data. As this field continues to evolve across the world, its overall priority and importance has also grown, which is where we begin to see the introduction of computer science-related courses in K-12 education.

  1. ^ Cosker, Glynn (2023), "What Is Information Technology? A Beginner's Guide to the World of IT", Technology Blog, Rasmussen University.
  2. ^ "Computer Technology Definition". Law Insider. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  3. ^ Forbes Technology Council, 16 Key Steps To Successful IT Project Management, published 10 September 2020, accessed 23 June 2023
  4. ^ Hindarto, Djarot (30 August 2023). "The Management of Projects is Improved Through Enterprise Architecture on Project Management Application Systems". International Journal Software Engineering and Computer Science (IJSECS). 3 (2): 151–161. doi:10.35870/ijsecs.v3i2.1512. ISSN 2776-3242.
  5. ^ a b Butler, Jeremy G., A History of Information Technology and Systems, University of Arizona, archived from the original on 5 August 2012, retrieved 2 August 2012
  6. ^ a b Leavitt, Harold J.; Whisler, Thomas L. (1958), "Management in the 1980s", Harvard Business Review, 11.
  7. ^ Chandler, Daniel; Munday, Rod (10 February 2011), "Information technology", A Dictionary of Media and Communication (first ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199568758, retrieved 1 August 2012, Commonly a synonym for computers and computer networks but more broadly designating any technology that is used to generate, store, process, and/or distribute information electronically, including television and telephone..
  8. ^ Ralston, Hemmendinger & Reilly (2000), p. 869.

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