Magnesium in biology

Magnesium Adenosine triphosphate ionic mixture, what is often just called Adenosine triphosphate colloquially in biology

Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. Magnesium occurs typically as the Mg2+ ion. It is an essential mineral nutrient (i.e., element) for life[1][2][3][4] and is present in every cell type in every organism. For example, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main source of energy in cells, must bind to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active. What is called ATP is often actually Mg-ATP.[5] As such, magnesium plays a role in the stability of all polyphosphate compounds in the cells, including those associated with the synthesis of DNA and RNA.

Space-filling model of the Chlorophyll a molecule, with the magnesium ion (bright-green) visible at the center of the chlorin group

Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or synthesizing ATP, or those that use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA and RNA.[6]

In plants, magnesium is necessary for synthesis of chlorophyll and photosynthesis.

  1. ^ "Magnesium (In Biological Systems)". Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2006. doi:10.1002/0471743984.vse4741. ISBN 978-0471743989.
  2. ^ Leroy, J. (1926). "Necessite du magnesium pour la croissance de la souris". Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie. 94: 431–433.
  3. ^ Lusk, J.E.; Williams, R.J.P.; Kennedy, E.P. (1968). "Magnesium and the growth of Escherichia coli". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 243 (10): 2618–2624. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)93417-4. PMID 4968384.
  4. ^ Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral Nutrition in Higher Plants. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-473542-2.
  5. ^ "Definition: magnesium from Online Medical Dictionary". 25 December 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-25. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  6. ^ Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1997. pp. 190–191.

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