Republic of Florence

Florentine Republic
Repubblica Fiorentina
1115–1569
Flag of Florence
Flag of Florence.svg
Top: State flag
Bottom: Civil flag adopted by Guelphs in 1251
Coat of arms used by Ghibellines until 1251 Coat of arms adopted by Guelphs in 1251 of Florence
Coat of arms used by Ghibellines until 1251
Coat of arms of Florence after 1251
Coat of arms adopted by Guelphs in 1251
The Florentine Republic in 1548
The Florentine Republic in 1548
CapitalFlorence
43°46′10″N 11°15′22″E / 43.76944°N 11.25611°E / 43.76944; 11.25611Coordinates: 43°46′10″N 11°15′22″E / 43.76944°N 11.25611°E / 43.76944; 11.25611
Common languagesItalian
Religion
Roman Catholicism
Demonym(s)Florentine
GovernmentOligarchic republic (1115–1494; 1498–1532)
Republic under a theocratic regime (1494–98)
Gonfaloniere of Justice 
• 1293–1295
Giano della Bella (first)
• 1434–1464
Cosimo de' Medici (first de facto Lord of Florence)
• 1530–1532
Alessandro de' Medici (last)
Duke of the Florentine Republic 
• 1532–1537
Alessandro
• 1537–1569
Cosimo I
LegislaturePriorato delle Arti
Council of Ancients
Council of Consuls
History 
• First established
1115
• Marquisate restored by Imperial force
1185–1197
1378
• Incorporation of Pisa
1406
• Founding of the
House of Medici
1434
• Title of Duke of the Florentine Republic created
1554
• Occupation of Siena
1555
• Elevated to Grand Duchy of Tuscany
1569
CurrencyFlorin (from 1252)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Coat of arms of the Canossa family.svg March of Tuscany
Meuble héraldique Cheval Cabré.svg Commune of Arezzo
Republic of Pisa
Commune of Pistoia
Königsbanner 14Jh.svg Holy Roman Empire
Grand Duchy of Tuscany Augmented Arms of Medici.svg
Today part ofItaly

The Republic of Florence, officially the Florentine Republic (Italian: Repubblica Fiorentina, pronounced [reˈpubblika fjorenˈtiːna], or Repubblica di Firenze), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.[1][2] The republic originated in 1115, when the Florentine people rebelled against the Margraviate of Tuscany upon the death of Matilda of Tuscany, who controlled vast territories that included Florence. The Florentines formed a commune in her successors' place.[3] The republic was ruled by a council known as the Signoria of Florence. The signoria was chosen by the gonfaloniere (titular ruler of the city), who was elected every two months by Florentine guild members.

During the Republic's history, Florence was an important cultural, economic, political and artistic force in Europe. Its coin, the florin, became widely imitated throughout Europe.[4] During the Republican period, Florence was also the birthplace of the Renaissance, which is considered a fervent period of European cultural, artistic, political and economic "rebirth".[5]

The republic had a checkered history of coups and countercoups against various factions. The Medici faction gained governance of the city in 1434 under Cosimo de' Medici. The Medici kept control of Florence until 1494. Giovanni de' Medici (later Pope Leo X) reconquered the republic in 1512.

Florence repudiated Medici authority for a second time in 1527, during the War of the League of Cognac. The Medici reassumed their rule in 1531 after an 11-month siege of the city, aided by Emperor Charles V.[6] Pope Clement VII, himself a Medici, appointed his relative Alessandro de' Medici as the first "Duke of the Florentine Republic", thereby transforming the Republic into a hereditary monarchy.[7][8]

The second Duke, Cosimo I, established a strong Florentine navy and expanded his territory, conquering Siena. In 1569, the pope declared Cosimo the first grand duke of Tuscany. The Medici ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany until 1737.

  1. ^ Brucker, Gene A. (1998). Florence: The Golden Age 1138–1737. ISBN 0-520-21522-2.
  2. ^ Najemy.
  3. ^ "History of Florence". Aboutflorence.com. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
  4. ^ "Florence – Climate". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  5. ^ "Renaissance". HISTORY. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  6. ^ Goudriaan (2018), p. 8-9.
  7. ^ Goudriaan (2018), p. 8–9.
  8. ^ Strathern (2007), p. 321.

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