Wine

Wine
Red and white wine 12-2015.jpg
TypeAlcoholic beverage
Alcohol by volume6–21%
IngredientsVaries; see Winemaking
Variants
16th-century wine press
Han dynasty tomb brick showing workers brewing alcohol

Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are major factors in different styles of wine. These differences result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the grape's growing environment (terroir), and the wine production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes involve fermentation of other crops including rice wine and other fruit wines such as plum, cherry, pomegranate, currant and elderberry.

Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest evidence of wine is from the Caucasus region in today's Georgia (6000 BCE),[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Persia (5000 BCE), Italy and Armenia (4000 BCE). New World wine has some connection to alcoholic beverages made by the indigenous peoples of the Americas, but is mainly connected to later Spanish traditions in New Spain.[11] Later, as Old World wine further developed viticulture techniques, Europe would encompass three of the largest wine-producing regions. Today, the five countries with the largest wine producing regions are in Italy, Spain, France, the United States, and China.[12]

Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians[13] and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; Judaism also incorporates it in the Kiddush, and Christianity in the Eucharist. Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Israeli wine cultures are still connected to these ancient roots. Similarly the largest wine regions in Italy, Spain, and France have heritages in connection to sacramental wine, likewise, viticulture traditions in the Southwestern United States started within New Spain as Catholic friars and monks first produced wines in New Mexico and California.[14][15][16]

  1. ^ "Georgia made 'world's oldest wine'". BBC News. 13 November 2017.
  2. ^ Schuster, Ruth (13 November 2017). "Earliest Wine in World Found in 8,000-year-old Neolithic Georgia". Haaretz.
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  11. ^ Thach, Liz (25 May 2018). "A brief history of American winemaking". The Conversation. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  12. ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. pp. 11–6. ISBN 978-0-671-79182-7.
  13. ^ "Isis & Osiris". University of Chicago.
  14. ^ Congressional Serial Set. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1903. p. 263. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  15. ^ Adams, Fiona (29 April 2019). "New Mexico's Deep Winemaking History". Wine Enthusiast. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  16. ^ California Vineyardists Association; Associated California Fruit Industries (1980). Wines and Vines. Hiaring Company. Retrieved 6 May 2020.

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