Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Steadfast, Compassionate)
Location of Amsterdam municipality
Location of Amsterdam municipality
Amsterdam is located in Netherlands
Location within the Netherlands
Amsterdam is located in Europe
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 52°22′22″N 04°53′37″E / 52.37278°N 4.89361°E / 52.37278; 4.89361
Country Netherlands
Province North Holland
RegionAmsterdam metropolitan area
City HallStopera
 • BodyMunicipal council
 • MayorFemke Halsema (GL)
 • Municipality219.32 km2 (84.68 sq mi)
 • Land165.76 km2 (64.00 sq mi)
 • Water53.56 km2 (20.68 sq mi)
 • Randstad3,043 km2 (1,175 sq mi)
Elevation−2 m (−7 ft)
 (November 2022)[5]
 • Municipality921,402
 • Density5,277/km2 (13,670/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro region
 • Randstad
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code020
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Amsterdam (/ˈæmstərdæm/ AM-stər-dam, UK also /ˌæmstərˈdæm/ AM-stər-DAM,[9][10] Dutch: [ˌɑmstərˈdɑm] (listen); lit. "The Dam on the River Amstel") is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands, with The Hague being the seat of government. It has a population of 921,402[11] within the city proper, 1,457,018 in the urban area[6] and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area.[12] Located in the Dutch province of North Holland,[13][14] Amsterdam is colloquially referred to as the "Venice of the North", for its large number of canals, now designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[15]

Amsterdam was founded at the mouth of the Amstel River that was dammed to control flooding; the city's name derives from the a local linguistic variation of the word dam.[16] Originally a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became a major world port during the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, when the Netherlands was an economic powerhouse. Amsterdam was the leading center for finance and trade, as well as a hub of production of secular art.[17] In the 19th and 20th centuries, the city expanded and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned and built. The canals of Amsterdam and the 19-20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are both on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Sloten, annexed in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, is the oldest part of the city, dating to the 9th century. The city has a long tradition of openness, liberalism, and tolerance.[18] Cycling is key to the city's modern character, and there are numerous biking paths and lanes spread throughout the entire city.[19][20]

Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals; the Rijksmuseum, the state museum with a vast collection of Dutch Golden Age art; the Van Gogh Museum; the Dam Square, where the Royal Palace of Amsterdam and former city hall (stadhuis) are located; the Amsterdam Museum; Stedelijk Museum, with modern art; Hermitage Amsterdam, the Concertgebouw concert hall; the Anne Frank House; the Het Scheepvaartmuseum, the Heineken Experience, the Natura Artis Magistra; Hortus Botanicus, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops. The city is also well known for its nightlife and festival activity; with several of its nightclubs (Melkweg, Paradiso) among the world's most famous. Primarily known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system and narrow canal houses with gabled façades; well-preserved legacies of the city's 17th-century Golden Age, and the establishment of the Van Gogh Museum, displaying the work of the famous Dutch modern artist, have attracted millions of visitors to Amsterdam annually.

The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, founded in 1602, is considered the oldest "modern" securities market stock exchange in the world. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. The city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands.[21] Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters in the city, including: the Philips conglomerate, AkzoNobel,, TomTom, and ING.[22] Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or have established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber, Netflix and Tesla.[23] In 2022, Amsterdam was ranked the ninth-best city in the world to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit[24] and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer.[25] The city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report (2nd in Europe),[26] and 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.[27] The Port of Amsterdam is the fifth largest in Europe.[28] The KLM hub and Amsterdam's main airport, Schiphol, is the busiest airport in the Netherlands, the third busiest in Europe, and the 11th busiest airport in the world.[29] The Dutch capital is considered one of the most multicultural cities in the world, with at least 177 nationalities represented.[30] Immigration and ethnic segregation in Amsterdam is a current issue.[31]

A few of Amsterdam's notable residents throughout its history include painters Rembrandt and Vincent van Gogh, seventeenth-century philosophers Baruch Spinoza, John Locke, René Descartes, and the Holocaust victim and diarist Anne Frank.

  1. ^ "Portfolios: Mayor & Alderpersons". Gemeente Amsterdam. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  2. ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten 2020" [Key figures for neighbourhoods 2020]. StatLine (in Dutch). CBS. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  3. ^ a b Anita Bouman–Eijs; Thijmen van Bree; Wouter Jonkhoff; Olaf Koops; Walter Manshanden; Elmer Rietveld (17 December 2012). De Top 20 van Europese grootstedelijke regio's 1995–2011; Randstad Holland in internationaal perspectief [Top 20 of European metropolitan regions 1995–2011; Randstad Holland compared internationally] (PDF) (Technical report) (in Dutch). Delft: TNO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  4. ^ "Postcodetool for 1012JS (Dam Square)". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  5. ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten 2021". Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 3 May 2022. filter region Regio's > Gemeenten per Provincie > Amsterdam
  6. ^ a b "Bevolking op 1 januari en gemiddeld; geslacht, leeftijd en regio". CBS StatLine (in Dutch). Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  7. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  8. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; Regionale kerncijfers Nederland" [Regional core figures Netherlands]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  9. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
  10. ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532
  11. ^ "CBS Statline".
  12. ^ "Economische Verkenningen Metropool Regio Amsterdam" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2022.
  13. ^ "Randstad2040; Facts & Figures (p.26)" (in Dutch). VROM. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  14. ^ "Ranstad Monitor 2017" (PDF). Ragio Ranstad. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  15. ^ Ahmed, Shamim (10 July 2015). "Amsterdam  • Venice of the North". The Independent. Archived from the original on 15 June 2022. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  16. ^ "Amsterdam | History, Population, & Points of Interest". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  17. ^ Archived 16 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Capitals of Capital -A History of International Financial Centres – 1780–2005, Youssef Cassis, ISBN 978-0-521-84535-9
  18. ^ Shorto, Russell. Amsterdam: A History of the World's Most Liberal City. New York: Vintage Books 2014. ISBN 9780307743756
  19. ^ Nello-Deakin, Samuel, and Anna Nikolaeva. "The human infrastructure of a cycling city: Amsterdam through the eyes of international newcomers." Urban Geography 42.3 (2021): 289-311.
  20. ^ Feddes, Fred, Marjolein de Lange, and Marco te Brömmelstroet. "Hard work in paradise. The contested making of Amsterdam as a cycling city." The Politics of Cycling Infrastructure. Policy Press, 2020. 133-156.
  21. ^ After Athens in 1888 and Florence in 1986, Amsterdam was in 1986 chosen as the European Capital of Culture, confirming its eminent position in Europe and the Netherlands. See for an overview of the European cities and capitals of culture over the years. Archived 14 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Archived 20 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Forbes Global 2000 Largest Companies – Dutch rankings.
  23. ^ "The Next Global Tech Hotspot? Amsterdam Stakes Its Claim". 22 May 2016 – via Bloomberg.
  24. ^ "Best cities ranking and report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  25. ^ "Best cities in the world (Mercer)". City Mayors. 26 May 2010. Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  26. ^ "Tech Cities in Motion – 2019". Savills. 4 February 2019.
  27. ^ "2thinknow Innovation Cities Global 256 Index – worldwide innovation city rankings". 30 July 2009. Archived from the original on 11 September 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  28. ^ "Port Statistics 2015" (PDF) (Press release). Rotterdam Port Authority. May 2016. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  29. ^ "Air freight services and solutions".
  30. ^ "Amsterdam world's most multicultural city". 26 February 2008.
  31. ^ Musterd, Sako. "Immigration and ethnic segregation in the Netherlands with a special focus on Amsterdam." Ethnic Minorities and Inter-Ethnic Relations in Context. Routledge, 2017. 287-303.

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