Armenia

Republic of Armenia
Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Motto: Մեկ Ազգ, Մեկ Մշակույթ
Mek Azg, Mek Mshakuyt
"One Nation, One Culture"
Anthem: Մեր Հայրենիք
Mer Hayrenik
"Our Fatherland"
Location of Armenia
Location of Armenia
Capital
and largest city
Yerevan
40°11′N 44°31′E / 40.183°N 44.517°E / 40.183; 44.517Coordinates: 40°11′N 44°31′E / 40.183°N 44.517°E / 40.183; 44.517
Official languagesArmenian[1]
Ethnic groups
(2011)
Religion
Christianity (Armenian Apostolic Church)[4]
Demonym(s)Armenian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Vahagn Khachaturyan
Nikol Pashinyan
Alen Simonyan
LegislatureNational Assembly
Establishment
6th century BC
321 BC–428 AD
190 BC
52–428
885–1045
1198–1375
28 May 1918
29 November 1920
23 September 1991
21 December 1991
2 March 1992
5 July 1995
Area
• Total
29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi) (138th)
• Water (%)
4.71[8]
Population
• Q1 2021 estimate
Neutral decrease 2,963,900[9] (137th)
• 2011 census
Neutral decrease 3,018,854[10][11]
• Density
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (99th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
$43.550 billion[12]
• Per capita
$14,701[12]
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
$13.612 billion[12] (127th)
• Per capita
$4,595[12] (104th)
Gini (2019)Positive decrease 29.9[13]
low
HDI (2021)Increase 0.759[14]
high · 85th
CurrencyDram (֏) (AMD)
Time zoneUTC+4 (AMT)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+374
ISO 3166 codeAM
Internet TLD
Website
www.gov.am

Armenia (/ɑːrˈmniə/ (listen);[15] Armenian: Հայաստան, romanizedHayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic of Armenia,[a] is a landlocked country in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.[16] It is a part of the Caucasus region; and is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the Lachin corridor (under a Russian peacekeeping force[17]) and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.[18] Yerevan is the capital, largest city and the financial center.

Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. The first Armenian state of Urartu was established in 860 BC, and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. The Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and in the year 301 became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion.[19][20][21][22] The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.

Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Persian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, 1.5 million Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Armenia is a developing country and ranks 85th on the Human Development Index (2021).[23] Its economy is primarily based on industrial output and mineral extraction. While Armenia is geographically located in the South Caucasus, it is generally considered geopolitically European. Since Armenia aligns itself in many respects geopolitically with Europe, the country is a member of numerous European organizations including the Council of Europe, the Eastern Partnership, Eurocontrol, the Assembly of European Regions, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Armenia is also a member of certain regional groups throughout Eurasia, including the Asian Development Bank, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Union, and the Eurasian Development Bank. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, which was proclaimed in 1991. Armenia also recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment.[4][24] The unique Armenian alphabet was created by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD.

  1. ^ "Constitution of Armenia, Article 20". president.am. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  2. ^ Asatryan, Garnik; Arakelova, Victoria (Yerevan 2002). The Ethnic Minorities in Armenia. Part of the OSCE. Archived copy at WebCite (16 April 2010).
  3. ^ Ministry of Culture of Armenia "The ethnic minorities in Armenia. Brief information" Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. As per the most recent census in 2011. "National minority" Archived 16 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ a b "Constitution of the Republic of Armenia - Library - The President of the Republic of Armenia". www.president.am. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  5. ^ "Armenia – History". Encyclopædia Britannia (Online ed.). Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  6. ^ de Laet, Sigfried J.; Herrmann, Joachim, eds. (1996). History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 978-92-3-102812-0. The ruler of the part known as Greater Armenia, Artaxias (Artashes), the founder of a new dynasty, managed to unite the country...
  7. ^ Encyclopedia Americana: Ankara to Azusa. Scholastic Library Publishing. 2005. p. 393. ISBN 9780717201389. It was named for Artaxias, a general of Antiochus the Great, who founded the kingdom of Armenia about 190 B.C.
  8. ^ "The World Fact Book – Armenia". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
  9. ^ "Statistics". Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  10. ^ "Statistical Service of Armenia" (PDF). Armstat. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  11. ^ "Armenia Population". countrymeters.info. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  12. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  13. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Armenia". World Bank. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  14. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  15. ^ "Armenia Archived 10 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine." Dictionary.com Unabridged. 2015.
  16. ^ The UN classification of world regions Archived 25 June 2002 at the Wayback Machine places Armenia in Western Asia; the CIA World Factbook "Armenia". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2 September 2010. "Armenia". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 16 April 2009., "Armenia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2009., Calendario Atlante De Agostini (in Italian) (111 ed.). Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini. 2015. p. sub voce. ISBN 9788851124908. and Oxford Reference Online "Oxford Reference". World Encyclopedia. Oxford Reference Online. 2004. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199546091.001.0001. ISBN 9780199546091. also place Armenia in Asia.
  17. ^ 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement, article 6 of which provides that the Lachin corridor "shall remain under the control of the peacekeeping contingent of the Russian Federation"
  18. ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History. Oxford University Press. 2003. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-19-510507-0.
  19. ^ (Garsoïan, Nina (1997). R.G. Hovannisian (ed.). Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. Vol. 1. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 81.)
  20. ^ Stringer, Martin D. (2005). A Sociological History of Christian Worship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-521-81955-8.
  21. ^ Smaller nations that have claimed a prior official adoption of Christianity include Osroene, the Silures, and San Marino. See Timeline of official adoptions of Christianity.
  22. ^ Grousset, René (1947). Histoire de l'Arménie (1984 ed.). Payot. p. 122.. Estimated dates vary from 284 to 314. Garsoïan (op.cit. p. 82), following the research of Ananian, favours the latter.
  23. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  24. ^ The republic has separation of church and state


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