Boston

Boston
City of Boston
Downtown Boston from the Boston Harbor
Brick rowhouses along Acorn Street
Old State House
Massachusetts State House
Fenway Park ballgame at night
Boston skyline from Charles River
From top, left to right: Downtown (from the Boston Harbor); Acorn Street on Beacon Hill; Old State House; Massachusetts State House; Fenway Park during a baseball game; Back Bay (from the Charles River)
Official seal of Boston
Official logo of Boston
Nickname: 
Motto(s): 
Sicut patribus sit Deus nobis (Latin)
'As God was with our fathers, so may He be with us'
Interactive maps of Boston
Coordinates: 42°21′37″N 71°03′28″W / 42.36028°N 71.05778°W / 42.36028; -71.05778Coordinates: 42°21′37″N 71°03′28″W / 42.36028°N 71.05778°W / 42.36028; -71.05778
CountryUnited States
RegionNew England
StateMassachusetts
CountySuffolk
Historic countriesKingdom of England
Commonwealth of England
Kingdom of Great Britain
Historic coloniesMassachusetts Bay Colony, Dominion of New England, Province of Massachusetts Bay
Settled1625
Incorporated (town)
September 7, 1630
(date of naming, Old Style)[a]
Incorporated (city)March 19, 1822
Named forBoston, Lincolnshire
Government
 • TypeStrong mayor / Council
 • MayorMichelle Wu (D)
 • CouncilBoston City Council
 • Council PresidentEdward M. Flynn (D)
Area
 • State capital city89.61 sq mi (232.10 km2)
 • Land48.34 sq mi (125.20 km2)
 • Water41.27 sq mi (106.90 km2)
 • Urban
1,770 sq mi (4,600 km2)
 • Metro
4,500 sq mi (11,700 km2)
 • CSA10,600 sq mi (27,600 km2)
Elevation
141 ft (43 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • State capital city675,647
 • Rank24th in the United States
1st in Massachusetts
 • Density13,976.98/sq mi (5,396.51/km2)
 • Metro4,941,632 (10th)
DemonymBostonian
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
53 ZIP Codes[3]
  • 02108–02137, 02163, 02196, 02199, 02201, 02203–02206, 02210–02212, 02215, 02217, 02222, 02126, 02228, 02241, 02266, 02283–02284, 02293, 02295, 02297–02298, 02467 (also includes parts of Newton and Brookline)
Area codes617 and 857
FIPS code25-07000
GNIS feature ID617565
Primary AirportLogan International Airport
InterstatesI-90.svg I-93.svg
Commuter RailMBTA Commuter Rail
Rapid TransitMBTA subway
WebsiteBoston.gov

Boston (US: /ˈbɔːstən/),[4] officially the City of Boston, is the state capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the cultural and financial center of the New England region of the United States. It is the 24th-most populous city in the country.[5] The city boundaries encompass an area of about 48.4 sq mi (125 km2)[6] and a population of 675,647 as of 2020.[7][8] It is the seat of Suffolk County (although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999).[9] The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest MSA in the country.[10] A broader combined statistical area (CSA), generally corresponding to the commuting area[11] and including Providence, Rhode Island, is home to approximately 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States.[12]

Boston is one of the oldest municipalities in America, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from the English town of the same name.[13][14] It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution and the nation's founding, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the siege of Boston. Upon American independence from Great Britain, the city continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture.[15][16] The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year.[17] Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park (Boston Common, 1634), first public or state school (Boston Latin School, 1635)[18] first subway system (Tremont Street subway, 1897),[19] and first large public library (Boston Public Library, 1848).

Today, Boston is a center of scientific research; the area's many colleges and universities, notably Harvard and MIT, make it a world leader in higher education,[20] including law, medicine, engineering and business, and the city is considered to be a global pioneer in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 5,000 startups.[21][22][23] Boston's economic base also includes finance,[24] professional and business services, biotechnology, information technology, and government activities.[25] Boston is a hub for LGBT culture and LGBT activism in the United States. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States.[26] Boston businesses and institutions rank among the top in the country for environmental sustainability and new investment.[27]


Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  2. ^ "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 24, 2021. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  3. ^ "ZIP Code Lookup – Search By City". United States Postal Service. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
  4. ^ UK: /ˈbɒstən/ (Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.)
  5. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2019 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  6. ^ "Boston by the Numbers: Land Area and Use". Boston Redevelopment Authority. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
  7. ^ "QuickFacts: Boston city, Massachusetts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on November 4, 2021. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  8. ^ "QuickFacts: Boston, Massachusetts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 23, 2021. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  9. ^ "List of intact or abandoned Massachusetts county governments". sec.state.ma.us. Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Archived from the original on April 6, 2021. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  10. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
  11. ^ "OMB Bulletin No. 20-01: Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas" (PDF). United States Office of Management and Budget. March 6, 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 20, 2020. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  12. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 Population Estimates Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT CSA". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
  13. ^ Banner, David. "Boston History – The History of Boston, Massachusetts". SearchBoston. Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
  14. ^ Kennedy 1994, pp. 11–12.
  15. ^ "About Boston". City of Boston. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  16. ^ Morris 2005, p. 8.
  17. ^ "Top 25 Most Visited Tourist Destinations in America". The Travelers Zone. May 10, 2008. Archived from the original on April 6, 2021. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  18. ^ "BPS at a Glance". Boston Public Schools. March 14, 2007. Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
  19. ^ Hull 2011, p. 42.
  20. ^ "World Reputation Rankings". April 21, 2016. Archived from the original on June 12, 2016. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  21. ^ "Venture Investment – Regional Aggregate Data". National Venture Capital Association and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  22. ^ Kirsner, Scott (July 20, 2010). "Boston is #1 ... But will we hold on to the top spot? – Innovation Economy". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  23. ^ Innovation that Matters 2016 (Report). US Chamber of Commerce. 2016. Archived from the original on April 6, 2021. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  24. ^ [1] Archived August 5, 2019, at the Wayback Machine Accessed October 7, 2018.
  25. ^ "The Boston Economy in 2010" (PDF). Boston Redevelopment Authority. January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 30, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
  26. ^ "Transfer of Wealth in Boston" (PDF). The Boston Foundation. March 2013. Archived from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
  27. ^ "Boston Ranked Most Energy-Efficient City in the United States". City Government of Boston. September 18, 2013. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved December 6, 2015.

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