Brunei

Brunei Darussalam
  • Negara Brunei Darussalam (Malay)
  • نݢارا بروني دارالسلام (Jawi script)
Motto: 
  • الدائمون المحسنون بالهدى
  • Ad-dāʾimūna al-muḥsinūna bi-l-hudā
  • ("Sentiasa membuat kebajikan dengan petunjuk Allah")
  • "Always in service with God's guidance"
Anthem: 
Brunei (orthographic projection).svg
Location Brunei ASEAN.svg
Location of Brunei (green)

in the ASEAN (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Bandar Seri Begawan
4°53.417′N 114°56.533′E / 4.890283°N 114.942217°E / 4.890283; 114.942217
Official language
and national language
Malay[1]
Other languages
and local dialects[3][4]
Official scripts
Ethnic groups
(2021)[5]
Religion
(2016)[5]
Demonym(s)Bruneian
GovernmentUnitary Islamic absolute monarchy
Hassanal Bolkiah
• Crown Prince and Senior Minister
Al-Muhtadee Billah
Legislaturenone[a]
Formation
c. 1368
15th–19th century
17 September 1888
1941–1945
1 January 1984
7 January 1984
Area
• Total
5,765 km2 (2,226 sq mi) (164th)
• Water (%)
8.6
Population
• 2020 estimate
460,345[9] (175th)
• 2016 census
417,256
• Density
72.11/km2 (186.8/sq mi) (134th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $33.389 billion[10] (125th)
• Per capita
Increase $74,952[10] (5th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $35.555 billion[10] (124th)
• Per capita
Increase $79,816[10] (29th)
HDI (2019)Increase 0.838[11]
very high · 47th
CurrencyBrunei dollar (BND)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Brunei Darussalam Time)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+673[c]
ISO 3166 codeBN
Internet TLD.bn[12]
  1. ^ Also 080 from East Malaysia.

Brunei (/brˈn/ (listen) broo-NY, Malay: [brunaɪ] (listen)), formally Brunei Darussalam[b] (Malay: Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi: نݢارا بروني دارالسلام, lit.'Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace'[15]), is a country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its South China Sea coast, it is completely surrounded by the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. Brunei is the only sovereign state entirely on Borneo; the remainder of the island is divided between Malaysia and Indonesia. As of 2020, its population was 460,345,[9] of whom about 100,000 live in the capital and largest city, Bandar Seri Begawan. The government is an absolute monarchy ruled by its Sultan, entitled the Yang di-Pertuan, and implements a combination of English common law and sharia law, as well as general Islamic practices.

At the peak of the Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah (reigned 1485–1528) is claimed to have had control over most regions of Borneo, including modern-day Sarawak and Sabah, as well as the Sulu Archipelago off the northeast tip of Borneo, and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo. Claims also state that they had control over Seludong (or the Kingdom of Maynila, where the modern-day Philippine capital Manila now stands) but Southeast Asian scholars believe this refers to a settlement Mount Selurong in Indonesia.[16] The maritime state of Brunei was visited by Spain's Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought against Spain in the 1578 Castilian War.

During the 19th century, the Bruneian Empire began to decline. The Sultanate ceded Sarawak (Kuching) to James Brooke and installed him as the White Rajah, and it ceded Sabah to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate and was assigned a British resident as colonial manager in 1906. After the Japanese occupation during World War II, in 1959 a new constitution was written. In 1962, a small armed rebellion against the monarchy was ended with the help of the British.

Brunei has been led by the Sultanate of Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah since 1967, and had gained its independence as a British protectorate on 1 January 1984. The country is an autocratic absolute monarchy. Economic growth during the 1990s and 2000s, with the GDP increasing 56% from 1999 to 2008, transformed Brunei into an industrialised country. It has developed wealth from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields. Brunei has the second-highest Human Development Index among the Southeast Asian nations, after Singapore, and is classified as a developed country. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brunei is ranked fifth in the world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity. The IMF estimated in 2011 that Brunei was one of two countries (the other being Libya) with a public debt at 0% of the national GDP.[17]

  1. ^ Deterding, David; Athirah, Ishamina (22 July 2016). "Brunei Malay". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. 47: 99–108. doi:10.1017/S0025100316000189. S2CID 201819132. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  2. ^ Writing contest promotes usage, history of Jawi script Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine. The Brunei Times (22 October 2010)
  3. ^ "Brunei". Ethnologue. 19 February 1999. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  4. ^ "Call to add ethnic languages as optional subject in schools". Archived from the original on 19 November 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  5. ^ a b "Population by Religion, Sex and Census Year".
  6. ^ "Brunei Darussalam" (PDF). United Nations (Human Rights Council): 4. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  7. ^ "Brunei: Freedom in the World 2020 Country Report". Freedom House.
  8. ^ "Brunei". United States Department of State.
  9. ^ a b "Department of Economic Planning and Development - Population". www.depd.gov.bn. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  11. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  12. ^ "Delegation Record for .BN". IANA. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  13. ^ "Home - gov.bn". Archived from the original on 4 September 2018.
  14. ^ "Embassy of Brunei Darussalam to the United States of America". Brunei Embassy. Archived from the original on 6 December 2000.
  15. ^ Peter Haggett (ed). Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 1, Marshall Cavendish, 2001, p. 2913.
  16. ^ Abinales, Patricio N. and Donna J. Amoroso, State and Society in the Philippines. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005.
  17. ^ AHA Centre. "Profile of Brunei Darussalam" (PDF).


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