Catalan language

català, valencià
Pronunciation[kətəˈla], [valensiˈa]
Native toAndorra, France, Italy, Spain
SpeakersL1: 4.1 million (2012)[1]
L2: 5.1 million
Total: 9.2 million
Early forms
Standard forms
Latin (Catalan alphabet)
Catalan Braille
Signed Catalan
Official status
Official language in


Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byInstitut d'Estudis Catalans
Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
Language codes
ISO 639-1ca
ISO 639-2cat
ISO 639-3cat
Domínio geolinguístico do catalão
  Territories where Catalan/Valencian is spoken and is official
  Territories where Catalan/Valencian is spoken but is not official
  Territories where Catalan/Valencian is not historically spoken but is official
Standard Catalan is classified as Vulnerable by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger [3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
A speaker of Catalan (Majorcan dialect).
Artur Mas, former president of Catalonia, discussing individual identity, collective identity and language.

Catalan (/ˈkætələn, -æn/ KAT-ə-lən, -⁠lan or /ˌkætəˈlæn/ KAT-ə-LAN;[4][5] autonym: català, Eastern Catalan: [kətəˈla]), known in the Valencian Community and Carche as Valencian (autonym: valencià), is a Western Romance language. It is the official language of Andorra,[6] and an official language of two autonomous communities in eastern Spain: Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. It is also an official language in Valencia, where it is called Valencian. It has semi-official status in the Italian comune of Alghero,[7] and it is spoken in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France and in two further areas in eastern Spain: the eastern strip of Aragon and the Carche area in the Region of Murcia. The Catalan-speaking territories are often called the Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".[8]

The language evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees. Nineteenth-century Spain saw a Catalan literary revival,[9][10] culminating in the early 1900s.

  1. ^ Catalan at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian (24 May 2022). "Glottolog 4.8 - Shifted Western Romance". Glottolog. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Archived from the original on 27 November 2023. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  3. ^ "World Atlas of Languages: Standard Catalan". Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  4. ^ "Definition of CATALAN". 16 August 2023.
  5. ^ "Definition of Catalan |".
  6. ^ Wheeler 2010, p. 191.
  7. ^ Minder, Raphael (21 November 2016). "Italy's Last Bastion of Catalan Language Struggles to Keep It Alive". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 January 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  8. ^ "els Països Catalans". enciclopè (in Catalan). Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  9. ^ Wheeler 2010, pp. 190–191.
  10. ^ Costa Carreras & Yates 2009, pp. 6–7.

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