A virtual assistant chatbot
The 1966 ELIZA chatbot

A chatbot (originally chatterbot[1]) is a software application or web interface that aims to mimic human conversation through text or voice interactions.[2][3] Modern chatbots are typically online and use artificial intelligence (AI) systems that are capable of maintaining a conversation with a user in natural language and simulating the way a human would behave as a conversational partner. Such technologies often utilize aspects of deep learning and natural language processing, but more simplistic chatbots have been around for decades prior.

Recently, this field has gained widespread attention due to the popularity of OpenAI's ChatGPT (using GPT-3 or GPT-4),[4] released in 2022, followed by alternatives such as Microsoft's Bing Chat (which uses OpenAI's GPT-4) and Google's Bard.[5] Such examples reflect the recent practice of such products being built based upon broad foundational large language models that get fine-tuned so as to target specific tasks or applications (i.e. simulating human conversation, in the case of chatbots). Chatbots can also be designed or customized to further target even more specific situations and/or particular subject-matter domains.[6]

A major area where chatbots have long been used is in customer service and support, such as with various sorts of virtual assistants.[7] Companies spanning various industries have begun using the latest generative artificial intelligence technologies to power more advanced developments in such areas.[6]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mauldin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "What is a chatbot?". Archived from the original on 2 November 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Hu, Krystal (2 February 2023). "ChatGPT sets record for fastest-growing user base - analyst note". Reuters.
  5. ^ "ChatGPT vs. Bing vs. Google Bard: Which AI is the Most Helpful?".
  6. ^ a b "GPT-4 takes the world by storm - List of companies that integrated the chatbot". 21 March 2023.
  7. ^ "2017 Messenger Bot Landscape, a Public Spreadsheet Gathering 1000+ Messenger Bots". 3 May 2017. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.

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