A city-state is an independent sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory.[1] They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including cities such as Rome, Athens, Sparta, Carthage, and the Italian city-states during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, such as Florence, Venice, Genoa and Milan. With the rise of nation states worldwide, only a few modern sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which qualify; Monaco, Singapore, and Vatican City are most commonly accepted as such. Singapore is the clearest example, with full self-governance, its own currency, a robust military, and a population of 5.3 million.[2]

Several non-sovereign cities enjoy a high degree of autonomy, and are sometimes considered city-states. Hong Kong, Macau,[3][4] and members of the United Arab Emirates – most notably Dubai and Abu Dhabi – are often cited as such.[5][6][7]

  1. ^ "city-state | Definition, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  2. ^ Brimelow, Ben. "How a tiny city-state became a military powerhouse with the best air force and navy in Southeast Asia". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  3. ^ "City-states never disappeared: Hamburg, Hong Kong, Singapore". Tomorrow.Mag. 6 September 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  4. ^ "Capital Facts for Hong Kong". World's Capital Cities. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hansen, Mogens 2000. Pg. 19 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Parker, Geoffrey 2005 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Kotkin, Joel. 2010. "A New Era for the City-State?" In Forbes.

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