Columbia University

Columbia University
Columbia University shield.svg
Latin: Universitas Columbiae
Former names
King's College
(1754–1784)
Columbia College
(1784–1896)[1]: 53–60 
MottoIn lumine Tuo videbimus lumen (Latin)
Motto in English
"In Thy light shall we see light"[2]
TypeRoyal college (1754–1776)
Private research university (1776–present)
EstablishedMay 25, 1754 (1754-05-25)
AccreditationMSCHE
Academic affiliations
Endowment$13.3 billion (2022)[3]
PresidentLee Bollinger
ProvostMary Cunningham Boyce
Academic staff
4,370[4]
Students33,413 (Fall 2019)[5]
Undergraduates6,398 (Fall 2019)[n 1][5]
Postgraduates24,412 (Fall 2019)[5]
Location, ,
United States

40°48′27″N 73°57′43″W / 40.80750°N 73.96194°W / 40.80750; -73.96194Coordinates: 40°48′27″N 73°57′43″W / 40.80750°N 73.96194°W / 40.80750; -73.96194
CampusLarge City, 299 acres (1.21 km2)
NewspaperColumbia Daily Spectator
ColorsColumbia blue and white[8]
   
NicknameLions
Sporting affiliations
MascotRoar-ee the Lion
Websitecolumbia.edu
Columbia University logo.svg

Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. Columbia is ranked among the top universities in the world.[9][10]

Columbia was established by royal charter under George II of Great Britain. It was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the American Revolution, and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University.

Columbia scientists and scholars have played a pivotal role in scientific breakthroughs including brain-computer interface; the laser and maser;[11][12] nuclear magnetic resonance;[13] the first nuclear pile; the first nuclear fission reaction in the Americas; the first evidence for plate tectonics and continental drift;[14][15][16] and much of the initial research and planning for the Manhattan Project during World War II. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including four undergraduate schools and 16 graduate schools. The university's research efforts include the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and accelerator laboratories with Big Tech firms such as Amazon and IBM.[17][18] Columbia is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the MD degree.[19] The university also annually administers the Pulitzer Prize. With over 15 million volumes, Columbia University Library is the third-largest private research library in the United States.[20]

The university's endowment stands at $13.3 billion in 2022, among the largest of any academic institution. As of December 2021, its alumni, faculty, and staff have included: seven Founding Fathers of the United States;[n 2] four U.S. presidents;[n 3] 33 foreign heads of state;[n 4] two secretaries-general of the United Nations;[n 5] ten justices of the United States Supreme Court, one of whom currently serves; 100 Nobel laureates; 125 National Academy of Sciences members;[61] 53 living billionaires;[62] 22 Olympic medalists;[63] 33 Academy Award winners; and 125 Pulitzer Prize recipients.

  1. ^ Moore, Nathanal Fischer (1846). A Historical Sketch of Columbia. New York, New York: Columbia University Press.
  2. ^ Psalms 36:9
  3. ^ As of June 30, 2022."Consolidated Financial Statements; June 30, 2022 and 2021" (PDF). finance.columbia.edu. Columbia University. October 12, 2022. p. 26. Retrieved October 30, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ "Full-time Faculty Distribution by School/Division, Fall 2009–2019" (PDF). Office of the Provost. Columbia University. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 21, 2019. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
  5. ^ a b c "Fall Headcount Enrollment by School, 2009–2018" (PDF). Columbia University Office of Provost. May 23, 2019.
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  9. ^ "National University Rankings". Usnews.com. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
  10. ^ "Best Global Universities Rankings". Usnews.com. October 30, 2018. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
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  12. ^ Taylor, Nick (2000). Laser : the inventor, the Nobel laureate, and the thirty-year patent war. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-83515-0. OCLC 44594104.
  13. ^ "Isidor Isaac Rabi". Aps.org. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  14. ^ N. D. Opdyke, et al., "Paleomagnetic study of Antarctic deep-sea cores", Science 154(1966): 349–357.
  15. ^ Heirtzler, J. R., et al., "Marine magnetic anomalies, geomagnetic field reversals, and motions of the ocean floor and continents", Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(1968): 2119–2136.
  16. ^ Pitman, W. and M. Talwani, "Sea-floor spreading in the North Atlantic", GSA Bulletin, 83(1972): 619–646.
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  21. ^ Chernow, Ron (2004). Alexander Hamilton. Penguin Books. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-59420-009-0.
  22. ^ "A Brief Biography of John Jay". The Papers of John Jay. Columbia University. 2002.
  23. ^ Dangerfield, George (1960). Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746–1813. New York, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.
  24. ^ "Egbert Benson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
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  27. ^ Cite error: The named reference :12 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  28. ^ Muhammad Fadhel al-Jamali. "Experiences In Arab Affairs". Harvard University. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  29. ^ "Riasat al-Wuzara' — Dawlat al-Duktur Qasim al-Riymawi" رئاسة الوزراء — دولة الدكتور قاسم الريماوي [The Cabinet — His Excellency Dr. Kassim al-Rimawi]. www.pm.gov.jo. Archived from the original on May 28, 2016. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
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  32. ^ "Namibia PM is Nahas Angula ... Educated in the US". Newsday. October 13, 2009. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
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  35. ^ "Charlemagne: Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz". The Economist. November 1, 2001. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
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  37. ^ "Gaston Eyskens Dies at Age 82; Led Six Governments in Belgium". The New York Times. January 5, 1988. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  38. ^ "Ashraf Ghani: departing Afghan president who failed to make peace with Taliban". Thomson Reuters. August 15, 2021.
  39. ^ Alyssa Smith (October 7, 2010). "State Building Challenges in Timor Leste". Columbia Communique. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  40. ^ Herb Jackson. "From Estonia to Leonia". Estonian Office of the President. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
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  54. ^ Gerth, Karl (2004). China made: Consumer Culture and the creation of the nation. Harvard University. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-674-01654-5.
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  63. ^ "The Columbia University Athletes Who Have Medaled at the Olympics Over the Years". Columbia News. Retrieved August 7, 2021.


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