East Timor

Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
  • República Democrática de
    Timor-Leste
     (Portuguese)
  • Repúblika Demokrátika de
    Timór-Leste
     (Tetum)
Motto: 
Unidade, Acção, Progresso (Portuguese)
Unidade, Asaun, Progresu (Tetum)
"Unity, Action, Progress"
Anthem: Pátria (Portuguese)
"Fatherland"
Location of East Timor
Capital
and largest city
Dili
8°33′S 125°34′E / 8.55°S 125.56°E / -8.55; 125.56Coordinates: 8°33′S 125°34′E / 8.55°S 125.56°E / -8.55; 125.56
Official languages
National languages
Working languages
Religion
(2015 census)[1]
Demonym(s)
  • East Timorese
  • Timorese
  • Maubere (informal)[2][3]
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[4]
• President
José Ramos-Horta
Taur Matan Ruak
LegislatureNational Parliament
Independence 
16th century
28 November 1975
17 July 1976
25 October 1999
20 May 2002
Area
• Total
14,874 km2 (5,743 sq mi) (154th)
• Water (%)
Negligible
Population
• 2021 estimate
1,340,513 (153rd)
• 2015 census
1,183,643[5]
• Density
78/km2 (202.0/sq mi) (137th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$5.315 billion
• Per capita
$4,031[6]
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$1.920 billion
• Per capita
$1,456[6]
Gini (2014)28.7[7]
low
HDI (2019)0.606[8]
medium · 141st
CurrencyUnited States dollarb (USD)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Timor-Leste Time)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+670
ISO 3166 codeTL
Internet TLD.tlc
  1. Fifteen further "national languages" are recognised by the Constitution
  2. Centavo coins also used
  3. Former use of .tp has been phased out

East Timor (/ˈtmɔːr/ (listen)), also known as Timor-Leste (/tiˈmɔːr ˈlɛʃt/; Portuguese pronunciation: [ti'moɾ 'lɛʃ.tɨ]; Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e[9]), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[10] (Portuguese: República Democrática de Timor-Leste,[11] Tetum: Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste[9]),[12] is an island country in Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecusse exclave on the north-western half, and the minor islands of Atauro and Jaco. Australia is the country's southern neighbour, separated by the Timor Sea. The country's size is 14,874 square kilometres (5,743 sq mi). Dili is its capital city.

East Timor came under Portuguese influence in the sixteenth century, remaining a Portuguese colony until 1975. Internal conflict preceded a unilateral declaration of independence and an Indonesian invasion and annexation. Resistance continued throughout Indonesian rule, and in 1999 a United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination led to Indonesia relinquishing control of the territory. As Timor-Leste, it became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on 20 May 2002.

The national government runs on a semi-presidential system, with the popularly elected President sharing power with a Prime Minister appointed by the National Parliament. Power is centralised under the national government, although many local leaders have informal influence. The country maintains a policy of international cooperation, and is a member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, an observer of the Pacific Islands Forum, and an applicant for ASEAN membership. The country remains relatively poor, with an economy that relies heavily on natural resources, especially oil, as well as on foreign aid.

The total population is over 1.1 million, and is heavily skewed towards young people due to a high fertility rate. Education has led to the increasing literacy over the past half-century, especially in the two national languages of Portuguese and Tetum. High ethnic and linguistic diversity is reflected by the 30 local dialects spoken in the country. The majority of the population is Catholic, which exists alongside strong local traditions, especially in rural areas.

  1. ^ "Nationality, Citizenship, and Religion". Government of Timor-Leste. 25 October 2015. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  2. ^ Hicks, David (15 September 2014). Rhetoric and the Decolonization and Recolonization of East Timor. Routledge. ISBN 9781317695356 – via Google Books.
  3. ^ Adelman, Howard (28 June 2011). No Return, No Refuge: Rites and Rights in Minority Repatriation. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231526906 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Shoesmith, Dennis (2003). "Timor-Leste: Divided Leadership in a Semi-Presidential System". Asian Survey. 43 (2): 231–252. doi:10.1525/as.2003.43.2.231. The semi-presidential system in the new state of Timor-Leste has institutionalized a political struggle between the president, Xanana Gusmão, and the prime minister, Mari Alkatiri. This has polarized political alliances and threatens the viability of the new state. This paper explains the ideological divisions and the history of rivalry between these two key political actors. The adoption of Marxism by Fretilin in 1977 led to Gusmão's repudiation of the party in the 1980s and his decision to remove Falintil, the guerrilla movement, from Fretilin control. The power struggle between the two leaders is then examined in the transition to independence. This includes an account of the politicization of the defense and police forces and attempts by Minister of Internal Administration Rogério Lobato to use disaffected Falintil veterans as a counterforce to the Gusmão loyalists in the army. The December 4, 2002, Dili riots are explained in the context of this political struggle.
  5. ^ "Population by Age & Sex". Government of Timor-Leste. 25 October 2015. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  7. ^ "Gini Index coefficient". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  8. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  9. ^ a b "tetun.org". tetun.org.
  10. ^ "UNGEGN list of country names" (PDF). United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 2–6 May 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  11. ^ "Constituição da República Democrática de Timor" (PDF). Government of Timor-Leste. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  12. ^ "Konstituisaun Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste" (PDF). Government of Timor-Leste. Retrieved 2 September 2016.

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