Economics (/ˌɛkəˈnɒmɪks, ˌkə-/)[1] is a social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.[2][3]

Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics analyzes what's viewed as basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the economy as a system where production, consumption, saving, and investment interact, and factors affecting it: employment of the resources of labour, capital, and land, currency inflation, economic growth, and public policies that have impact on these elements.

Other broad distinctions within economics include those between positive economics, describing "what is", and normative economics, advocating "what ought to be";[4] between economic theory and applied economics; between rational and behavioural economics; and between mainstream economics and heterodox economics.[5]

Economic analysis can be applied throughout society, including business,[6] finance, cybersecurity,[7] health care,[8] engineering[9] and government.[10] It is also applied to such diverse subjects as crime,[11] education,[12] the family,[13] feminism,[14] law,[15] philosophy,[16] politics, religion,[17] social institutions, war,[18] science[19] and the environment.[20]

  1. ^ "economics". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ Krugman, Paul; Wells, Robin (2012). Economics (3rd ed.). Worth Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 978-1464128738.
  3. ^ Backhouse, Roger (2002). The Penguin history of economics. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-026042-0. OCLC 59475581. The boundaries of what constitutes economics are further blurred by the fact that economic issues are analysed not only by 'economists' but also by historians, geographers, ecologists, management scientists, and engineers.
  4. ^ Friedman, Milton (1953). "The Methodology of Positive Economics". Essays in Positive Economics. University of Chicago Press. p. 5.
  5. ^ Caplin, Andrew; Schotter, Andrew, eds. (2008). The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics: A Handbook. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532831-8.
  6. ^ Dielman, Terry E. (2001). Applied regression analysis for business and economics. Duxbury/Thomson Learning. ISBN 0-534-37955-9. OCLC 44118027.
  7. ^ Kianpour, Mazaher; Kowalski, Stewart; Øverby, Harald (2021). "Systematically Understanding Cybersecurity Economics: A Survey". Sustainability. 13 (24): 13677. doi:10.3390/su132413677.
  8. ^ Tarricone, Rosanna (2006). "Cost-of-illness analysis". Health Policy. 77 (1): 51–63. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2005.07.016. PMID 16139925.
  9. ^ Dharmaraj, E. (2010). Engineering Economics. Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House. ISBN 978-9350432471. OCLC 1058341272.
  10. ^ King, David (2018). Fiscal Tiers: the economics of multi-level government. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-64813-5. OCLC 1020440881.
  11. ^ Becker, Gary S (January 1974). "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach" (PDF). In Becker, Gary S.; Landes, William M. (eds.). Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment. National Bureau of Economic Research. pp. 1–54. ISBN 0-87014-263-1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 September 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  12. ^ Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmannr, Ludger (2007). "Economics of Education". Policy Research Working Papers. The World Bank. doi:10.1596/1813-9450-4122. hdl:20.500.12323/2954. S2CID 13912607. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  13. ^ Becker, Gary S. (1991) [1981]. A Treatise on the Family (Enlarged ed.). Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-90698-5. Archived from the original on 30 July 2022. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  14. ^ Nelson, Julie A. (1995). "Feminism and Economics". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 9 (2): 131–148. doi:10.1257/jep.9.2.131. Archived from the original on 7 April 2022. Retrieved 1 July 2022. Ferber, Marianne A.; Nelson, Julie A., eds. (October 2003) [1993]. Feminist Economics Today: Beyond Economic Man. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226242071. Archived from the original on 30 July 2022. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
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  16. ^
  17. ^ Iannaccone, Laurence R. (September 1998). "Introduction to the Economics of Religion" (PDF). Journal of Economic Literature. 36 (3): 1465–1495. JSTOR 2564806. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  18. ^ Nordhaus WD (2002). "The Economic Consequences of a War with Iraq" (PDF). In Kaysen C, Miller SE, Malin MB, Nordhaus WD, Steinbruner JD (eds.). War with Iraq: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives. Cambridge, Massachusetts: American Academy of Arts and Sciences. pp. 51–85. ISBN 978-0-87724-036-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
  19. ^ Diamond, Arthur M. Jr. (2008). Durlauf, Steven N.; Blume, Lawrence E. (eds.). Science, economics of (2nd ed.). pp. 328–334. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1491. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. {{cite encyclopedia}}: |work= ignored (help) (Note the page is broken in some browsers but is still readable through the source.)
  20. ^ Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication (PDF) (Report). United Nations Environment Programme. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2022.

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