Egypt

Arab Republic of Egypt
جمهورية مصر العربية
  • Arabic:Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʻArabīyah
    Egyptian:Gomhoreyyet Maṣr el-ʿArabeyya
Anthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
"بلادي، بلادي، بلادي"
(English: "My country, my country, my country")
EGY orthographic.svg
Capital
and largest city
Cairo
30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217
Official languagesArabic
National languageEgyptian Arabic[a]
Religion
See Religion in Egypt
Demonym(s)Egyptian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Moustafa Madbouly
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Establishment
• Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt
[1][2][b]
c. 3150 BC
• Muhammad Ali dynasty inaugurated
9 July 1805[3]
28 February 1922
23 July 1952
• Republic declared
18 June 1953
18 January 2014
Area
• Total
1,010,408[4][5] km2 (390,121 sq mi) (29th)
• Water (%)
0.632
Population
• 2022 estimate
107,770,524[6] (15th)
• 2017 census
94,798,827[7][8]
• Density
102/km2 (264.2/sq mi) (118th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.493 trillion[9] (21st)
• Per capita
Increase $14,226[9] (99th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $438.348 billion[9] (36th)
• Per capita
Increase $4,176[9] (118th)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 31.5[10]
medium · 46th
HDI (2021)Steady 0.731[11]
high · 97th
CurrencyEgyptian pound (LE/E£/£E) (EGP)
Time zoneUTC+2[c] (EGY)
Driving sideright
Calling code+20
ISO 3166 codeEG
Internet TLD
  1. ^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language.[12] Egyptian Arabic is the spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
  2. ^ "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation".[1] Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.
  3. ^ See Daylight saving time in Egypt.

Egypt (Arabic: مِصر, romanizedMiṣr, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [masˤr]), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip of Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast.[13] At approximately 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the 14th-most populated country in the world.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage along the Nile Delta back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government.[14] Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which reflects its unique transcontinental location being simultaneously Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and North African.[15] Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Sunni Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority, along with other lesser practiced faiths.

Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt declared itself a republic, and in 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government, a semi-presidential republic led by Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian or heading an authoritarian regime, responsible for perpetuating the country's poor human rights record.

Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language.[16] With over 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the fourteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About 43% of Egypt's residents live across the country's urban areas,[17] with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt is considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide.[18] It is a developing country, ranking 97th on the Human Development Index. It has a diversified economy, which is the third-largest in Africa, the 33rd-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the 20th-largest globally by PPP. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the World Youth Forum.

  1. ^ a b Goldschmidt, Arthur (1988). Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-86531-182-4. Archived from the original on 17 December 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2015. Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation. For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity.
  2. ^ "Background Note: Egypt". United States Department of State Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  3. ^ Pierre Crabitès (1935). Ibrahim of Egypt. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-415-81121-7. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013. ... on July 9, 1805, Constantinople conferred upon Muhammad Ali the pashalik of Cairo ...
  4. ^ "Density By Governorate 1/7/2020 – Area km2 (Theme: Population – pg.14)". Capmas.gov.eg. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  5. ^ "Total area km2, pg.15" (PDF). Capmas.Gov – Arab Republic of Egypt. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  6. ^ "The World Factbook: Egypt". Central Intelligence Agency. September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "Distribution Egyptians Population By Governorate – Census 2017 (Theme: Census – pg.15)". Capmas.gov.eg. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference capmas.gov.eg was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database: October 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  10. ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 21 September 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  12. ^ "Constitutional Declaration: A New Stage in the History of the Great Egyptian People". Egypt State Information Service. 30 March 2011. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  13. ^ Map, Egypt's Projects. "محافظة الأسكندرية". www.egy-map.com.
  14. ^ Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  15. ^ "Egyptian Identity". www.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  16. ^ "Constitution of The Arab Republic of Egypt 2014" (PDF). sis.gov.eg. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  17. ^ "Urban population (% of total population) - Egypt, Arab Rep". World Bank. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  18. ^ "Lessons from/for BRICSAM about south–north Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?". International Studies Review. 9.

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