A fricative is a consonant produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.[1] These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of [f]; the back of the tongue against the soft palate in the case of German [x] (the final consonant of Bach); or the side of the tongue against the molars, in the case of Welsh [ɬ] (appearing twice in the name Llanelli). This turbulent airflow is called frication.[2]

A particular subset of fricatives are the sibilants. When forming a sibilant, one still is forcing air through a narrow channel, but in addition, the tongue is curled lengthwise to direct the air over the edge of the teeth.[1] English [s], [z], [ʃ], and [ʒ] are examples of sibilants.

The usage of two other terms is less standardized: "Spirant" is an older term for fricatives used by some American and European phoneticians and phonologists.[3] "Strident" could mean just "sibilant", but some authors[who?] include also labiodental and uvular fricatives in the class.

  1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "Definition of Frication". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  3. ^ Lodge, Ken (2009). A Critical Introduction to Phonetics. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2.

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