Globalization

Globalization. Top-left: showing early migration patterns of humans across the globe as part of the history of globalization. Top-right: the Namban ship carrying Europeans to trade with Japan. Middle-left: the headquarters of the United Nations in international territory within Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Middle-right: a branch of the American superstore Walmart, the largest company in the world by revenue as of 2021, in Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada. Bottom: a map of undersea cable connections around the African continent to and from Europe, Asia, and across the Atlantic Ocean.

Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. The term globalization first appeared in the early 20th century (supplanting an earlier French term mondialization), developed its current meaning some time in the second half of the 20th century, and came into popular use in the 1990s to describe the unprecedented international connectivity of the post-Cold War world.[1] Its origins can be traced back to 18th and 19th centuries due to advances in transportation and communications technology. This increase in global interactions has caused a growth in international trade and the exchange of ideas, beliefs, and culture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration that is associated with social and cultural aspects. However, disputes and international diplomacy are also large parts of the history of globalization, and of modern globalization.

Economically, globalization involves goods, services, data, technology, and the economic resources of capital.[2] The expansion of global markets liberalizes the economic activities of the exchange of goods and funds. Removal of cross-border trade barriers has made the formation of global markets more feasible.[3] Advances in transportation, like the steam locomotive, steamship, jet engine, and container ships, and developments in telecommunication infrastructure, like the telegraph, Internet, mobile phones, and smartphones, have been major factors in globalization and have generated further interdependence of economic and cultural activities around the globe.[4][5][6]

Though many scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history to long before the European Age of Discovery and voyages to the New World, and some even to the third millennium BCE.[7] Large-scale globalization began in the 1820s, and in the late 19th century and early 20th century drove a rapid expansion in the connectivity of the world's economies and cultures.[8] The term global city was subsequently popularized by sociologist Saskia Sassen in her work The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo (1991).[9]

In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people, and the dissemination of knowledge.[10] Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, sociocultural resources, and the natural environment. Academic literature commonly divides globalization into three major areas: economic globalization, cultural globalization, and political globalization.[11]

  1. ^ James, Paul; Steger, Manfred B. (2014). "A Genealogy of globalization: The career of a concept". Globalizations. 11 (4): 417–34. doi:10.1080/14747731.2014.951186. S2CID 18739651.
  2. ^ Albrow, Martin; King, Elizabeth (1990). Globalization, Knowledge and Society. London: Sage. ISBN 0-8039-8323-9. OCLC 22593547.
  3. ^ Read "Following the Money: U.S. Finance in the World Economy" at NAP.edu. 1995. doi:10.17226/2134. ISBN 978-0-309-04883-5.
  4. ^ "Imagining the Internet". History of Information Technologies. Elon University School of Communications. Archived from the original on 23 March 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
  5. ^ Stever, H. Guyford (1972). "Science, Systems, and Society". Journal of Cybernetics. 2 (3): 1–3. doi:10.1080/01969727208542909.
  6. ^ Wolf, Martin (September 2014). "Shaping Globalization" (PDF). Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. 51 (3): 22–25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference GL-H-09 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ H., O'Rourke, Kevin; G., Williamson, Jeffrey (1 April 2002). "When did globalisation begin?". European Review of Economic History. 6 (1): 23–50. doi:10.1017/S1361491602000023. ISSN 1361-4916. S2CID 15767303.
  9. ^ Sassen, Saskia - The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine (1991) - Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07063-6
  10. ^ "Globalization: Threat or Opportunity?". International Monetary Fund. 12 April 2000. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  11. ^ Babones, Salvatore (2008). "Studying Globalization: Methodological Issues". In Ritzer, George (ed.). The Blackwell Companion to Globalization. Malden: John Wiley & Sons. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-470-76642-2. OCLC 232611725.

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