Greece

Hellenic Republic
Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Greek)
Ellinikí Dimokratía
Motto: Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος
Elefthería í Thánatos
(English: "Freedom or Death")
Anthem: Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν
Ímnos is tin Eleftherían
(English: "Hymn to Liberty")
EU-Greece.svg
EU-Greece (orthographic projection).svg
Location of Greece (dark green)

– in Europe (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (light green)

Capital
and largest city
Athens
37°58′N 23°43′E / 37.967°N 23.717°E / 37.967; 23.717
Official language
and national language
Greek
Religion
(2017)
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Katerina Sakellaropoulou
Kyriakos Mitsotakis
Konstantinos Tasoulas
LegislatureHellenic Parliament
Establishment history
25 March 1821 (traditional starting date of the Greek War of Independence), 15 January 1822 (official declaration)
3 February 1830
24 July 1974
11 June 1975
Area
• Total
131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)[2] (95th)
• Water (%)
1.51 (2015)[3]
Population
• 2021 census
10,432,481[4] (88th)
• Density
79.1[5]/km2 (204.9/sq mi) (133th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $378.693 billion[6] (54th)
• Per capita
Increase $35,596[6] (51th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $222.770 billion[6] (53rd)
• Per capita
Increase $20,940[6] (49th)
Gini (2021)Negative increase 32.4[7]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.887[8]
very high · 33rd
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (AD)b
Driving sideright
Calling code+30
ISO 3166 codeGR
Internet TLD
  1. The Church of Greece is recognized by the Greek Constitution as the prevailing religion in Greece,[9] and is the only country in the world where Eastern Orthodoxy is clearly recognized as a state religion.[10]
  2. Other short formats: dd-mm-yyyy, dd/mm/yyyy
  3. The .eu domain is also used, as in other European Union member states.

Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα, romanizedElláda, [eˈlaða]), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, romanized: Elliniki Dimokratia)[a] is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the southern tip of the Balkans, and is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Greece shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, and the Sea of Crete and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin, featuring thousands of islands. The country consists of nine traditional geographic regions, and has a population of approximately 10.4 million. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki and Patras.

Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilization, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, theatre and the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis (singular polis), which spanned the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Philip II of Macedon united most of present-day Greece in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great rapidly conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. The subsequent Hellenistic period saw the height of Greek culture and influence in antiquity. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its continuation, the Byzantine Empire, which was culturally and linguistically predominantly Greek.

The Greek Orthodox Church, which emerged in the first century AD, helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox world. After falling under Ottoman rule in the mid-15th century, Greece emerged as a modern nation state in 1830 following a war of independence. After European powers initiated prolonged periods of monarchial rule by a foreign family, the country fell to a military junta in 1967. Subsequently, the junta collapsed in 1974 and Greece returned to democratic governance, which has continued to this day. The country's rich historical legacy is reflected in part by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic, and a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy, and a high quality of life, ranking 32nd in the Human Development Index. Its economy is among the largest in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities (precursor to the European Union) and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. It is also a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, NATO, the OECD, the WTO, and the OSCE. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power.

  1. ^ "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe". Pew Research Center. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  2. ^ "Country Comparison: Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  3. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  4. ^ Αποτελέσματα Απογραφής Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2021 [Results of Population-Housing Census 2021] (in Greek). 19 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  5. ^ "Announcement of the results of the 2011 Population Census for the Resident Population" (PDF). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 28 December 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 19 April 2022. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  7. ^ "Income inequality, 2021". Piraeus: Hellenic Statistical Authority. 27 July 2022. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  8. ^ "Country Insights". New York: Human Development Report Office, United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  9. ^ [1] The Constitution of Greece: Section II Relations of Church and State: Article 3, Hellenic Resources network.
  10. ^ Enyedi, Zsolt; Madeley, John T.S. (2 August 2004). Church and State in Contemporary Europe. Routledge. p. 228. ISBN 9781135761417. Both as a state church and as a national church, the Orthodox Church of Greece has a lot in common with Protestant state churches, and even with Catholicism in some countries.


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