History of Singapore

The history of the modern state of Singapore dates back to its founding in the early nineteenth century; however, evidence suggests that a significant trading settlement existed on the Island of Singapore in the 14th century. The last ruler of the Kingdom of Singapura, Parameswara, was expelled by the Majapahit or the Siamese and he then founded Malacca. Singapore then came under the Malacca Sultanate and then the Johor Sultanate. In 1819, British statesman Stamford Raffles negotiated a treaty whereby Johor allowed the British to locate a trading port on the island, ultimately leading to the establishment of the crown colony of Singapore in 1867. Important reasons for the rise of Singapore were its nodal position at the tip of the Malay Peninsula flanked by the Pacific and Indian Oceans, the presence of a natural sheltered harbour, as well as its status as a free port.[1]

During World War II, Singapore was conquered and occupied by the Japanese Empire from 1942 to 1945. When the Japanese surrendered, Singapore reverted to British control, with increasing levels of self-government being granted, resulting in Singapore's merger with the Federation of Malaya to form Malaysia in 1963. However, social unrest and disputes between Singapore's ruling People's Action Party and Malaysia's Alliance Party resulted in Singapore's expulsion from Malaysia. Singapore became an independent republic on 9 August 1965.

Facing severe unemployment and a housing crisis partially caused by the Bukit Ho Swee fire, Singapore embarked on a modernisation programme beginning in the late 1960s through the 1970s that focused on establishing a manufacturing industry, developing large public housing estates, and investing heavily in public education and infrastructure.

By the 1990s, the country had become one of the world's most prosperous nations, with a highly developed free market economy and strong international trading links. It now has the highest per capita gross domestic product in Asia,[2] which is 7th in the world, and it is ranked 9th on the UN Human Development Index.[3][4][2]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference entrepot was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ a b "GDP per capita (current US$) - Singapore, East Asia & Pacific, Japan, Korea". World Bank.
  3. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  4. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 7 October 2019.

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