Immigration

Net migration rates for 2016: net immigration (blue), net emigration (orange), stable (green), and no data (gray)

Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle as permanent residents or naturalized citizens.[1][2][3] Commuters, tourists, and other short-term stays in a destination country do not fall under the definition of immigration or migration; seasonal labour immigration is sometimes included, however.

As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries.[4][5][6] Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives.[7][8][9][10][11] Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent for the scenarios in which 37 to 53 percent of the developing countries' workers migrate to the developed countries.[12][13][14][15] Development economists argue that reducing barriers to labor mobility between developing countries and developed countries would be one of the most efficient tools of poverty reduction.[16][17][18][19] Positive net immigration can soften the demographic dilemma in the aging global North.[20][21]

The academic literature provides mixed findings for the relationship between immigration and crime worldwide, but finds for the United States that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate.[22][23] Research shows that country of origin matters for speed and depth of immigrant assimilation, but that there is considerable assimilation overall for both first- and second-generation immigrants.[24][25]

Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination against foreign born and minority populations in criminal justice, business, the economy, housing, health care, media, and politics in the United States and Europe.[26][27][28][29]

  1. ^ "immigration". OxfordDictionaries.com. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  2. ^ "immigrate". Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, In. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  3. ^ "Who's who: Definitions". London, England: Refugee Council. 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  4. ^ Koczan, Zsoka; Peri, Giovanni; Pinat, Magali; Rozhkov, Dmitriy (2021), "Migration", in Valerie Cerra; Barry Eichengreen; Asmaa El-Ganainy; Martin Schindler (eds.), How to Achieve Inclusive Growth, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/oso/9780192846938.003.0009, ISBN 978-0-19-284693-8
  5. ^ di Giovanni, Julian; Levchenko, Andrei A.; Ortega, Francesc (1 February 2015). "A Global View of Cross-Border Migration" (PDF). Journal of the European Economic Association. 13 (1): 168–202. doi:10.1111/jeea.12110. hdl:10230/22196. ISSN 1542-4774. S2CID 3465938.
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference WorldBank2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Card, David; Dustmann, Christian; Preston, Ian (1 February 2012). "Immigration, Wages, and Compositional Amenities" (PDF). Journal of the European Economic Association. 10 (1): 78–119. doi:10.1111/j.1542-4774.2011.01051.x. ISSN 1542-4774. S2CID 154303869.
  8. ^ Bodvarsson, Örn B; Van den Berg, Hendrik (2013). The economics of immigration: theory and policy. New York; Heidelberg [u.a.]: Springer. p. 157. ISBN 978-1461421153. OCLC 852632755.
  9. ^ "Migration Within Europe | IGM Forum". www.igmchicago.org. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  10. ^ "Poll Results | IGM Forum". www.igmchicago.org. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  11. ^ "Poll Results | IGM Forum". www.igmchicago.org. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  12. ^ Iregui, Ana Maria (1 January 2003). "Efficiency Gains from the Elimination of Global Restrictions on Labour Mobility: An Analysis using a Multiregional CGE Model". Wider Working Paper Series.
  13. ^ Clemens, Michael A (1 August 2011). "Economics and Emigration: Trillion-Dollar Bills on the Sidewalk?". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 25 (3): 83–106. doi:10.1257/jep.25.3.83. ISSN 0895-3309. S2CID 59507836.
  14. ^ Hamilton, B.; Whalley, J. (1 February 1984). "Efficiency and distributional implications of global restrictions on labour mobility: calculations and policy implications". Journal of Development Economics. 14 (1–2): 61–75. doi:10.1016/0304-3878(84)90043-9. ISSN 0304-3878. PMID 12266702.
  15. ^ Dustmann, Christian; Preston, Ian P. (2 August 2019). "Free Movement, Open Borders, and the Global Gains from Labor Mobility". Annual Review of Economics. 11 (1): 783–808. doi:10.1146/annurev-economics-080218-025843. ISSN 1941-1383.
  16. ^ Milanovic, Branko (7 January 2014). "Global Inequality of Opportunity: How Much of Our Income Is Determined by Where We Live?". Review of Economics and Statistics. 97 (2): 452–460. doi:10.1162/REST_a_00432. hdl:10986/21484. ISSN 0034-6535. S2CID 11046799.
  17. ^ Mishra, Prachi (2014). "Emigration and wages in source countries: A survey of the empirical literature". International Handbook on Migration and Economic Development. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 241–266. doi:10.4337/9781782548072.00013. ISBN 978-1782548072. S2CID 143429722.
  18. ^ Clemens, Michael A.; Pritchett, Lant (2019). "The New Economic Case for Migration Restrictions: An Assessment". Journal of Development Economics. 138 (9730): 153–164. doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2018.12.003. S2CID 204418677.
  19. ^ Pritchett, Lant; Hani, Farah (30 July 2020). The Economics of International Wage Differentials and Migration. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and Finance. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190625979.013.353. ISBN 978-0190625979. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  20. ^ Peri, Giovanni. "Can Immigration Solve the Demographic Dilemma?". www.imf.org. IMF. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  21. ^ Harvey, Fiona (15 July 2020). "World population in 2100 could be 2 billion below UN forecasts, study suggests". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  22. ^ The Integration of Immigrants into American Society. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. doi:10.17226/21746. ISBN 978-0-309-37398-2. Americans have long believed that immigrants are more likely than natives to commit crimes and that rising immigration leads to rising crime... This belief is remarkably resilient to the contrary evidence that immigrants are in fact much less likely than natives to commit crimes.
  23. ^ Lee, Matthew T.; Martinez Jr., Ramiro (2009). "Immigration reduces crime: an emerging scholarly consensus". Immigration, Crime and Justice. Emerald Group Publishing. pp. 3–16. ISBN 978-1848554382.
  24. ^ Villarreal, Andrés; Tamborini, Christopher R. (2018). "Immigrants' Economic Assimilation: Evidence from Longitudinal Earnings Records". American Sociological Review. 83 (4): 686–715. doi:10.1177/0003122418780366. PMC 6290669. PMID 30555169.
  25. ^ Blau, Francine D. (2015). "Immigrants and Gender Roles: Assimilation vs. Culture" (PDF). IZA Journal of Migration. 4 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1186/s40176-015-0048-5. S2CID 53414354. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  26. ^ Zschirnt, Eva; Ruedin, Didier (27 May 2016). "Ethnic discrimination in hiring decisions: a meta-analysis of correspondence tests 1990–2015". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 42 (7): 1115–1134. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2015.1133279. hdl:10419/142176. ISSN 1369-183X. S2CID 10261744.
  27. ^ Rich, Judy (October 2014). "What Do Field Experiments of Discrimination in Markets Tell Us? A Meta Analysis of Studies Conducted since 2000". IZA Discussion Papers (8584). SSRN 2517887. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  28. ^ Rehavi, M. Marit; Starr, Sonja B. (2014). "Racial Disparity in Federal Criminal Sentences". Journal of Political Economy. 122 (6): 1320–1354. doi:10.1086/677255. ISSN 0022-3808. S2CID 3348344.
  29. ^ Enos, Ryan D. (1 January 2016). "What the Demolition of Public Housing Teaches Us about the Impact of Racial Threat on Political Behavior". American Journal of Political Science. 60 (1): 123–142. doi:10.1111/ajps.12156. S2CID 51895998.

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