Immigration to the United States

Naturalization ceremony at Oakton High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, December 2015.
Immigrants to the United States take the Oath of Allegiance at a naturalization ceremony at the Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona, September 2010.
Population growth rate with and without migration in the U.S.

Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States. In absolute numbers, the United States has a larger immigrant population than any other country in the world, with 47 million immigrants as of 2015.[1] This represents 19.1% of the 244 million international migrants worldwide, and 14.4% of the United States population. Some other countries have larger proportions of immigrants, such as Australia with 30%[2] and Canada with 21.9%.[3]

According to the 2016 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, the United States admitted a total of 1.18 million legal immigrants (618k new arrivals, 565k status adjustments) in 2016.[4] Of these, 48% were the immediate relatives of United States citizens, 20% were family-sponsored, 13% were refugees or asylum seekers, 12% were employment-based preferences, 4.2% were part of the Diversity Immigrant Visa program, 1.4% were victims of a crime (U1) or their family members were (U2 to U5),[5] and 1.0% who were granted the Special Immigrant Visa (SIV) for Iraqis and Afghans employed by the United States Government.[4] The remaining 0.4% included small numbers from several other categories, including 0.2% who were granted suspension of deportation as an immediate relative of a citizen (Z13);[6] persons admitted under the Nicaraguan and Central American Relief Act; children born after the issuance of a parent's visa; and certain parolees from the former Soviet Union, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam who were denied refugee status.[4]

Between 1921 and 1965, policies such as the national origins formula limited immigration and naturalization opportunities for people from areas outside Western Europe. Exclusion laws enacted as early as the 1880s generally prohibited or severely restricted immigration from Asia, and quota laws enacted in the 1920s curtailed Eastern European immigration. The civil rights movement led to the replacement[7] of these ethnic quotas with per-country limits for family-sponsored and employment-based preference visas.[8] Since then, the number of first-generation immigrants living in the United States has quadrupled.[9][10] The total immigrant population has stalled in recent years, especially since the election of Donald Trump and the COVID-19 pandemic. Census estimates show 45.3 million foreign born residents in March 2018 and 45.4 million in September 2021; the lowest 3 year increase in decades.[11]

Research suggests that immigration is beneficial to the United States economy. With few exceptions, the evidence suggests that on average, immigration has positive economic effects on the native population, but it is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies also show that immigrants have lower crime rates than natives in the United States.[12][13][14] The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding such issues as maintaining ethnic homogeneity, workers for employers versus jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behavior.

  1. ^ "United Nations Population Division | Department of Economic and Social Affairs". Retrieved October 3, 2017.
  2. ^ "Table 5.1 Estimated resident population, by country of birth(a), Australia, as at 30 June, 1996 to 2019(b)(c)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. June 17, 2021. Retrieved July 19, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics (October 25, 2017). "The Daily – Immigration and ethnocultural diversity: Key results from the 2016 Census". Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c "Table 7. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status By Type And Detailed Class Of Admission: Fiscal Year 2016–2016 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics". United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS). December 18, 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
  5. ^ "Green Card for a Victim of a Crime (U Nonimmigrant)". May 23, 2018. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  6. ^ "INS Class of Admission Codes" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference american-gatekeeping was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ "Per Country Limit". U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. Archived from the original on January 21, 2016. in 1965.
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference migrationinformation was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference google1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ "Monthly Census Bureau Data Shows Big Increase in Foreign-Born". Retrieved December 17, 2021.
  12. ^ The Integration of Immigrants into American Society. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. doi:10.17226/21746. ISBN 978-0-309-37398-2. Americans have long believed that immigrants are more likely than natives to commit crimes and that rising immigration leads to rising crime ... This belief is remarkably resilient to the contrary evidence that immigrants are in fact much less likely than natives to commit crimes.
  13. ^ Doleac, Jennifer (February 14, 2017). "Are immigrants more likely to commit crimes?". Econofact. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017.
  14. ^ * Graif, Corina; Sampson, Robert J. (July 15, 2009). "Spatial Heterogeneity in the Effects of Immigration and Diversity on Neighborhood Homicide Rates". Homicide Studies. 13 (3): 242–60. doi:10.1177/1088767909336728. ISSN 1088-7679. PMC 2911240. PMID 20671811.

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