Information system

An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information.[1] From a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, people, structure (or roles), and technology.[2] Information systems can be defined as an integration of components for collection, storage and processing of data of which the data is used to provide information, contribute to knowledge as well as digital products that facilitate decision making.[3]

A computer information system is a system that is composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information.[4][5][6][7] The term is also sometimes used to simply refer to a computer system with software installed.

"Information systems" is also an academic field study about systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of computer hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data.[8] An emphasis is placed on an information system having a definitive boundary, users, processors, storage, inputs, outputs and the aforementioned communication networks.[9]

In many organizations, the department or unit responsible for information systems and data processing is known as "information services".[10][11][12][13]

Any specific information system aims to support operations, management and decision-making.[14][15] An information system is the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, and also the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.[16]

Some authors make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems, and business processes. Information systems typically include an ICT component but are not purely concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end-use of information technology. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.[17]

Alter[18][19] argues for advantages of viewing an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans or machines perform processes and activities using resources to produce specific products or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying information.[20]

As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other.[21] An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.

Information systems are the primary focus of study for organizational informatics.[22]

  1. ^ Piccoli, Gabriele; Pigni, Federico (July 2018). Information systems for managers: with cases (4.0 ed.). Prospect Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-943153-50-3. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  2. ^ O’Hara, Margaret; Watson, Richard; Cavan, Bruce (1999). "Managing the three levels of change". Information Systems Management. 16 (3): 64. doi:10.1201/1078/43197.16.3.19990601/31317.9. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  3. ^ "Information Systems". 2020-11-12.
  4. ^ "information system". Archived from the original on 2020-08-11. Retrieved 2014-09-21.
  5. ^ "Information Systems". Principia Cybernetica Web.
  6. ^ Vladimir Zwass (2016-02-10). "Information system". Britannica.
  7. ^ D’Atri A., De Marco M., Casalino N. (2008). "Interdisciplinary Aspects of Information Systems Studies", Physica-Verlag, Springer, Germany, pp. 1–416, doi:10.1007/978-3-7908-2010-2 ISBN 978-3-7908-2009-6
  8. ^ "Information Technology vs Information Systems: What's The Difference?". CityU of Seattle. 2020-01-16. Retrieved 2021-11-13.
  9. ^ Jessup, Leonard M.; Joseph S. Valacich (2008). Information Systems Today (3rd ed.). Pearson Publishing. Glossary p. 416
  10. ^ "What is Information Systems or Information Services (IS)?". Definition from Techopedia. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  11. ^ "What is IS (information system or information services)?". Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  12. ^ "Information Services". Directory. Australian Government. 2 June 2017. Archived from the original on 27 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  13. ^ "Information Services". Ramsey County. 12 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  14. ^ Bulgacs, Simon (2013). "The first phase of creating a standardised international innovative technological implementation framework/Software application". International Journal of Business and Systems Research. 7 (3): 250. doi:10.1504/IJBSR.2013.055312. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  15. ^ "SEI Report, "Glossary"". Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved 2013-04-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  16. ^ Kroenke, D M. (2008). Experiencing MIS. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ
  17. ^ O'Brien, J A. (2003). Introduction to information systems: essentials for the e-business enterprise. McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA
  18. ^ Alter, S. (2003) "18 Reasons Why IT-Reliant Work Systems Should Replace 'The IT Artifact' as the Core Subject Matter of the IS Field," Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 12(23), Oct., pp. 365–394,
  19. ^ Alter, S (2013). "Work System Theory: Overview of Core Concepts, Extensions, and Challenges for the Future". Journal of the Association for Information Systems. 14 (2): 72–121. doi:10.17705/1jais.00323.
  20. ^ Alter, S. (2006) The Work System Method: Connecting People, Processes, and IT for Business Results. Works System Press, CA
  21. ^ Bacon, C. James; Fitzgerald, Brian (2001-04-01). "A systemic framework for the field of information systems". ACM SIGMIS Database: The DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems. 32 (2): 46–67. doi:10.1145/506732.506738. ISSN 0095-0033. S2CID 15687595.
  22. ^ Beynon-Davies P. (2009). Business Information Systems. Palgrave, Basingstoke

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