Israel

Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35

State of Israel
  • מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎ (Hebrew)
  • دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل‎ (Arabic)
Anthem: Hatikvah
(English: "The Hope")
Location of Israel (in green) and the Israeli-occupied territories (in light green) on the globe.
Location of Israel (in dark green) and the Israeli-occupied territories (in light green) on the globe.
1949 armistice border (Green Line)
1949 armistice border (Green Line)
Capital
and largest city
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1][fn 2]
31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217
Official languagesHebrew
Recognized languages
Arabic[fn 3]
Ethnic groups
(2019)[13]
Religion
(2019)[13]
Demonym(s)Israeli
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Isaac Herzog
Yair Lapid
Naftali Bennett
Mickey Levy
Esther Hayut
LegislatureKnesset
Independence following the end of the British Mandate for Palestine
14 May 1948
11 May 1949
1958–2018
Area
• Total
20,770–22,072 km2 (8,019–8,522 sq mi)[a] (149th)
• Water (%)
2.71 (as of 2015)[14]
Population
• 2022 estimate
9,580,700[15][fn 4] (92nd)
• 2008 census
7,412,200[16][fn 4]
• Density
434/km2 (1,124.1/sq mi) (35th)
GDP (PPP)2022[17] estimate
• Total
Increase $478.01 billion[fn 4] (49th)
• Per capita
Increase $50,200[fn 4] (34th)
GDP (nominal)2022[17] estimate
• Total
Increase $520.7 billion[fn 4] (29th)
• Per capita
Increase $54,690[fn 4] (15th)
Gini (2018)34.8[fn 4][18]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.919[fn 4][19]
very high · 19th
CurrencyNew shekel () (ILS)
Time zoneUTC+2 (IST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (IDT)
Date format
  • יי-חח-שששש (AM)
  • dd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+972
ISO 3166 codeIL
Internet TLD.il
  1. ^ 20,770 km2 is Israel within the Green Line. 22,072 km2 includes the annexed Golan Heights (c. 1,200 km2 (460 sq mi)) and East Jerusalem (c. 64 km2 (25 sq mi)).

Israel (/ˈɪzri.əl, -r-/; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, romanizedYīsrāʾēl; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل, romanizedʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل, Dawlat ʾIsrāʾīl), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea, and shares borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan to the east, and Egypt to the southwest; it is also bordered by the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.[20][fn 5]

Inhabited since the Middle Bronze Age by Canaanite tribes,[21][22] the land held by present-day Israel was once the setting for much of Biblical history, beginning with the 9th-century Iron Age kingdoms of Israel and Judah,[23][24] which fell, respectively, to the Neo-Assyrian Empire (c. 720 BCE) and Neo-Babylonian Empire (586 BCE).[25][26] Later rulers included the Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great, the Seleucid Empire, the Hasmonean dynasty, and, from 63 BCE, the Roman Republic and later Roman Empire.[27][28] From the 5th century CE, it was part of the Byzantine Empire, up until the 7th century Rashidun Caliphate's conquest of the Levant. With the First Crusade of 1096–1099, Crusader states were established. Muslim rule was then restored in 1291 by the Mamluk Sultanate, which later ceded the territory to the Ottoman Empire.

During the 19th century, the Zionist movement began promoting the creation of a Jewish homeland in Ottoman Syria. Following World War I, Britain was granted control of the region by League of Nations mandate, in what became known as Mandatory Palestine. After World War II, the newly formed United Nations adopted the Partition Plan for Palestine in 1947, recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states, and an internationalized Jerusalem.[29] Following a civil war within Mandatory Palestine between Yishuv and Palestinian Arab forces, Israel declared independence at the termination of the British Mandate. A day later, several surrounding Arab countries intervened, leading to the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, which concluded with the 1949 Armistice Agreements that saw Israel in control of most of the former mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by Jordan and Egypt respectively. Over 700,000 Palestinian Arabs, about half of the pre-war Arab population, were expelled from or fled the territory Israel would come to control. During and immediately after the war, around 260,000 Jews emigrated or fled from the Arab world to Israel.[30][fn 6]

Israel has since fought wars with several Arab countries,[31] and since the 1967 Six-Day War has occupied the Golan Heights and the Palestinian territories of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, though whether Gaza remains occupied following the Israeli disengagement is disputed. Israel has effectively annexed East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, though these actions have been rejected as illegal by the international community, and established settlements within the occupied territories, which are also considered illegal under international law. While Israel has signed peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan, and has normalized relations with a number of other Arab countries, it remains formally at war with Syria and with Lebanon, and efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have thus far stalled.

In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state, and as the nation-state of the Jewish people.[32] The country has a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage. The prime minister serves as head of government and the Knesset is the unicameral legislature.[33] Israel is a developed country and an OECD member,[34] with a population of over 9 million people as of 2021.[35] It has the world's 29th-largest economy by nominal GDP,[17] and ranks nineteenth in the Human Development Index.[19]

  1. ^ "Australia recognises West Jerusalem as Israeli capital". BBC News. 15 December 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Foreign Ministry statement regarding Palestinian-Israeli settlement". www.mid.ru. 6 April 2017.
  3. ^ "Czech Republic announces it recognizes West Jerusalem as Israel's capital". Jerusalem Post. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017. The Czech Republic currently, before the peace between Israel and Palestine is signed, recognizes Jerusalem to be in fact the capital of Israel in the borders of the demarcation line from 1967." The Ministry also said that it would only consider relocating its embassy based on "results of negotiations.
  4. ^ "Honduras recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital". The Times of Israel. 29 August 2019.
  5. ^ "Guatemala se suma a EEUU y también trasladará su embajada en Israel a Jerusalén" [Guatemala joins US, will also move embassy to Jerusalem]. Infobae (in Spanish). 24 December 2017. Guatemala's embassy was located in Jerusalem until the 1980s, when it was moved to Tel Aviv.
  6. ^ "Nauru recognizes J'lem as capital of Israel". Israel National News. 29 August 2019.
  7. ^ "Trump Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's Capital and Orders U.S. Embassy to Move". The New York Times. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  8. ^ The Legal Status of East Jerusalem (PDF), Norwegian Refugee Council, December 2013, pp. 8, 29
  9. ^ "Arabic in Israel: an official language and a cultural bridge". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 18 December 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  10. ^ "Israel Passes 'National Home' Law, Drawing Ire of Arabs". The New York Times. 19 July 2018.
  11. ^ Lubell, Maayan (19 July 2018). "Israel adopts divisive Jewish nation-state law". Reuters.
  12. ^ "Press Releases from the Knesset". Knesset website. 19 July 2018. The Arabic language has a special status in the state; Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law.
  13. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference population_stat2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  15. ^ "Home page". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  16. ^ Population Census 2008 (PDF) (Report). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  17. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook (April 2022)". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  18. ^ "Income inequality". data.oecd.org. OECD. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  19. ^ a b Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  20. ^ Akram, Susan M., Michael Dumper, Michael Lynk, and Iain Scobbie, eds. 2010. International Law and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Rights-Based Approach to Middle East Peace. Routledge. p. 119: "UN General Assembly Resolution 181 recommended the creation of an international zone, or corpus separatum, in Jerusalem to be administered by the UN for a 10-year period, after which there would be a referendum to determine its future. This approach applies equally to West and East Jerusalem and is not affected by the occupation of East Jerusalem in 1967. To a large extent it is this approach that still guides the diplomatic behaviour of states and thus has greater force in international law."
  21. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica article on Canaan
  22. ^ Jonathan M Golden,Ancient Canaan and Israel: An Introduction, OUP, 2009 pp. 3–4.
  23. ^ Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible unearthed : archaeology's new vision of ancient Israel and the origin of its stories (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-86912-4.
  24. ^ Cite error: The named reference Pitcher was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  25. ^ Cite error: The named reference Broshi 2001 174 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  26. ^ Faust, Avraham (29 August 2012). Judah in the Neo-Babylonian Period. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 1. doi:10.2307/j.ctt5vjz28. ISBN 978-1-58983-641-9.
  27. ^ Peter Fibiger Bang; Walter Scheidel (2013). The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean. Oxford University Press. pp. 184–187. ISBN 978-0-19-518831-8.
  28. ^ Abraham Malamat (1976). A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press. pp. 223–239. ISBN 978-0-674-39731-6.
  29. ^ Cite error: The named reference 181(II) was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  30. ^ a b Fischbach 2008, p. 26–27.
  31. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 1
  32. ^ "Israel". Freedom in the World. Freedom House. 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  33. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnn was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  34. ^ "Israel's accession to the OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  35. ^ T. O. I. staff. "Israel's population rises to over 9.3 million on Rosh Hashanah eve". Times of Israel. Retrieved 14 October 2021.


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