Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Қазақстан Республикасы (Kazakh)
    Qazaqstan Respublikasy
  • Республика Казахстан (Russian)
    Respublika Kazakhstan
Менің Қазақстаным (Kazakh)
Menıñ Qazaqstanym
"My Kazakhstan"
Location of Kazakhstan
51°10′N 71°26′E / 51.167°N 71.433°E / 51.167; 71.433
Largest cityAlmaty
43°16′39″N 76°53′45″E / 43.27750°N 76.89583°E / 43.27750; 76.89583
Official languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic under an authoritarian government[6]
• President
Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
Älihan Smaiylov
13 December 1917
26 August 1920
19 June 1925
5 December 1936
• Declaration of sovereignty
25 October 1990
• Reconstituted as the Republic of Kazakhstan
10 December 1991
• Independence from the USSR
16 December 1991
26 December 1991
30 August 1995
• Total
2,724,900 km2 (1,052,100 sq mi) (9th)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
20,000,000[7] (62nd)
• Density
7/km2 (18.1/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $654.050 billion[8] (41st)
• Per capita
Increase $32,712[8] (57th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $259.292 billion[8] (53th)
• Per capita
Increase $12,968[8] (69th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 27.8[9]
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.811[10]
very high · 56th
CurrencyTenge (₸) (KZT)
Time zoneUTC+5 / +6 (West / East)
ISO 3166 codeKZ
Internet TLD

Kazakhstan,[b] officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,[c] is a landlocked country mostly in Central Asia, with a small part in Europe.[d] It borders Russia to the north and west, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan to the southeast, Uzbekistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southwest, with a coastline along the Caspian Sea. Its capital is Astana. Kazakhstan is the world's ninth-largest country by land area and the largest landlocked country in the world. It has a population of 20 million people[13] and one of the lowest population densities in the world, at fewer than 6 people per square kilometre (16 people/sq mi). Ethnic Kazakhs constitute a majority of the population, while ethnic Russians form a significant minority. Officially secular, Kazakhstan is a Muslim-majority country, although ethnic Russians in the country form a sizeable Christian community.

The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by nomadic groups and empires. In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians inhabited the land, and the Achaemenid Persian Empire expanded towards the southern region. Turkic nomads have inhabited the country from as early as the 6th century. In the 13th century, the territory was subjugated by the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. In the 15th century, as a result of disintegration of the Golden Horde, the Kazakh Khanate was established. By the 18th century, Kazakh Khanate disintegrated into three jüz which were absorbed and conquered by the Russian Empire; by the mid-19th century, the Russians nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire and liberated the slaves of the Kazakhs in 1859.[14] Following the 1917 Russian Revolution and subsequent Russian Civil War, the territory was reorganized several times. In 1936, it was established as the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union from 1988 to 1991.

Human rights organizations have described the Kazakh government as authoritarian, and regularly describe human rights in Kazakhstan as poor. The country dominates Central Asia economically and politically, generating 60 percent of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil and gas industry; it also has vast mineral resources.[15] Kazakhstan has the highest Human Development Index ranking in the region. It is de jure a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic;[16] however, it is de facto an authoritarian regime[17][18] with no free elections.[19] Nevertheless, there have been incremental efforts at democratization and political reform since the 2019 resignation of President Nursultan Nazarbayev. Kazakhstan is a member state of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Commonwealth of Independent States, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Eurasian Economic Union, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Organization of Turkic States, and International Organization of Turkic Culture.

  1. ^ "2023 жыл басына Қазақстан Республикасы халқының саны" (PDF). stat.gov.kz. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2023.
  2. ^ Kazakhstan population by ethnic groups
  3. ^ "2021 жылғы Қазақстан Республикасы халқының ұлттық санағының қорытындылары" [Results of the 2021 Population Census of the Republic of Kazakhstan] (in Kazakh). Agency of Strategic Planning and Reforms of the Republic of Kazakhstan National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 2 September 2022. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  4. ^ Viktorova, Polina (30 November 2022). "How the Number of Believers Changed in Kazakhstan". CABAR.asia. The Institute for War & Peace Reporting. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  5. ^ Schneider, Johann F.; Larsen, Knud S.; Krumov, Krum; Vazow, Grigorii (2013). Advances in International Psychology: Research Approaches and Personal Dispositions, Socialization Processes and Organizational Behavior. Kassel university press GmbH. p. 164. ISBN 978-3-86219-454-4. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018.
  6. ^ "Frontline democracy and the battle for Ukraine". Democracy Index 2022. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 2023. p. 50. Retrieved 21 October 2023.
  7. ^ "Kazakhstan's population hits the mark of 20 mln". inform.kz. 16 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  8. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Kazakhstan)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  9. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 May 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2022.
  10. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 25 December 2022.
  11. ^ Porter, Malcolm; Lye, Keith (2008). Asia. Cherrytree Books. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-84234-461-3. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  12. ^ World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. 29 September 2021. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021. Kazakhstan: Geography
  13. ^ "Kazakhstan's population reaches 20 million. President Tokayev congratulates his fellow citizens". kursiv.kz. 16 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  14. ^ Galiev, Anuar (1998). "Traditional Institutions in Modern Kazakhstan". Src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  15. ^ Zarakhovich, Yuri (27 September 2006). "Kazakhstan Comes on Strong". Time. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  16. ^ "Kazakhstan/Qazaqstan Constitution". Parliament of Kazakhstan. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference index2010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference index2022 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference kaz2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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