Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Қазақстан Республикасы (Kazakh)
    Qazaqstan Respublikasy
  • Республика Казахстан (Russian)
    Respublika Kazakhstan
Менің Қазақстаным (Kazakh)
Menıñ Qazaqstanym
"My Kazakhstan"
Location of Kazakhstan
51°10′N 71°26′E / 51.167°N 71.433°E / 51.167; 71.433
Largest cityAlmaty
43°16′39″N 76°53′45″E / 43.27750°N 76.89583°E / 43.27750; 76.89583
Official languages
Recognised minority languages[2]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential republic
• President
Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
Älihan Smaiylov
13 December 1917
26 August 1920
19 June 1925
5 December 1936
• Declaration of sovereignty
25 October 1990
• Reconstituted as the Republic of Kazakhstan
10 December 1991
• Independence from USSR
16 December 1991
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
30 August 1995
• Total
2,724,900 km2 (1,052,100 sq mi) (9th)
• Water (%)
• 2021 census
• Density
7/km2 (18.1/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $569.813 billion[6] (41st)
• Per capita
Increase $30,178[6] (53rd)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $179.332 billion[6] (55th)
• Per capita
Increase $9,686[6] (69th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 27.5[7]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.825[8]
very high · 51st
CurrencyTenge (₸) (KZT)
Time zoneUTC+5 / +6 (West / East)
Date formatyyyy.dd.mm[c]
Driving sideright
Calling code+7-6xx, +7-7xx
ISO 3166 codeKZ
Internet TLD

Kazakhstan,[d] officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,[e] is a transcontinental country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.[f] It borders Russia to the north and west, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan to the southeast, Uzbekistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southwest, with a coastline along the Caspian Sea. Its capital is Astana, known as Nur-Sultan from 2019 to 2022. Almaty, Kazakhstan's largest city, was the country's capital until 1997. Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country, the largest and northernmost Muslim-majority country by land area, and the ninth-largest country in the world. It has a population of 19 million people, and one of the lowest population densities in the world, at fewer than 6 people per square kilometre (15 people per square mile).

The country dominates Central Asia economically and politically, generating 60 percent of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil and gas industry; it also has vast mineral resources.[11] Officially, it is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage,[12] and has the highest Human Development Index ranking in the region. Kazakhstan is a member state of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization of Turkic States, and the International Organization of Turkic Culture.

The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by nomadic groups and empires. In antiquity, the ancient Iranian nomadic Scythians inhabited the land, and the Achaemenid Persian Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads, who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as the First Turkic Khaganate and the Second Turkic Khaganate, have inhabited the country from as early as the 6th century. In the 13th century, the territory was subjugated by the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. In the 15th century, the Kazakh Khanate conquered much land that would later form the territory of modern Kazakhstan.

By the 16th century, the Kazakhs emerged as a distinct Turkic group, divided into three jüz. They raided the territory of Russia throughout the 18th century, causing the Russians to advance into the Kazakh Steppe; by the mid-19th century, the Russians nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire and liberated all of the slaves that the Kazakhs had captured in 1859.[13] Following the 1917 Russian Revolution and subsequent outbreak of the Russian Civil War, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganized several times. In 1936, it was established as the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union from 1988 to 1991. Human rights organizations have described the Kazakh government as authoritarian, and regularly describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor.

  1. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan" Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. zan.kz.
  2. ^ "Kazakhstan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
  3. ^ "2021 жылғы Қазақстан Республикасы халқының ұлттық санағының қорытындылары" [Results of the 2021 Population Census of the Republic of Kazakhstan] (in Kazakh). Agency of Strategic Planning and Reforms of the Republic of Kazakhstan National Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  4. ^ https://stat.gov.kz/api/getFile/?docId=ESTAT464825[bare URL]
  5. ^ Schneider, Johann F.; Larsen, Knud S.; Krumov, Krum; Vazow, Grigorii (2013). Advances in International Psychology: Research Approaches and Personal Dispositions, Socialization Processes and Organizational Behavior. Kassel university press GmbH. p. 164. ISBN 978-3-86219-454-4. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  7. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 May 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  9. ^ Porter, Malcolm; Lye, Keith (2008). Asia. Cherrytree Books. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-84234-461-3. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  10. ^ World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. 29 September 2021. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021. Kazakhstan: Geography
  11. ^ Zarakhovich, Yuri (27 September 2006). "Kazakhstan Comes on Strong". Time. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  12. ^ "Kazakhstan/Qazaqstan Constitution". Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  13. ^ "Traditional Institutions in Modern Kazakhstan". Src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2011.

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