Kosovo

Coordinates: 42°35′N 21°00′E / 42.583°N 21.000°E / 42.583; 21.000

Republic of Kosovo
  • Republika e Kosovës (Albanian)
  • Република Косово / Republika Kosovo (Serbian)
Anthem: Himni i Republikës së Kosovës
"Anthem of the Republic of Kosovo"
Location in Europe
Location in Europe
Status
Capital
and largest city
Pristinaa
42°40′N 21°10′E / 42.667°N 21.167°E / 42.667; 21.167
Official languages
Regional languages
Ethnic groups
(2019)[3]
Religion
(2015)[4]
Demonym(s)
  • Kosovar, Kosovan
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Vjosa Osmani
Albin Kurti
Glauk Konjufca
LegislatureAssembly
Establishment
1877
31 January 1946
2 July 1990
9 June 1999
10 June 1999
17 February 2008
10 September 2012
19 April 2013
Area
• Total
10,887 km2 (4,203 sq mi)
• Water (%)
1.0[5]
Population
• 2022 estimate
Increase 1,806,279[6] (152nd)
• Density
159/km2 (411.8/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $25.180 billion[7]
• Per capita
Increase $13,964[7]
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $9.660 billion[7]
• Per capita
Increase $5,355[7]
Gini (2017)Negative increase 29.0[8]
low · 121st
HDI (2016)Increase 0.742[9]
high
CurrencyEuro ()b (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+383
ISO 3166 codeXK
Internet TLD.xkc (proposed)
  1. Pristina is the official capital.[10] Prizren is the historic capital of Kosovo.[10]
  2. Two currencies are used in Kosovo - the Euro is unilaterally approved even though Kosovo is not a formal member of the eurozone, and the Serbian Dinar is used mainly in Serb-majority areas.[11][12][13]
  3. XK is a "user assigned" ISO 3166 code not designated by the standard, but used by the European Commission, Switzerland, the Deutsche Bundesbank and other organisations. However, ISO 3166-2:RS-KM remains in use.

Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova [kɔˈsɔva] or Kosovë [kɔˈsɔvə]; Serbian Cyrillic: Косово [kôsoʋo]), officially the Republic of Kosovo (Albanian: Republika e Kosovës; Serbian: Република Косово, romanized: Republika Kosovo), is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe. It lies at the centre of the Balkans. Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008,[14] and has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by 101 member states of the United Nations. It is bordered by Serbia to the north and east, North Macedonia to the southeast, Albania to the southwest, and Montenegro to the west. Most of central Kosovo is dominated by the vast plains and fields of Dukagjini and Kosovo field. The Accursed Mountains and Šar Mountains rise in the southwest and southeast, respectively. Its capital and largest city is Pristina.

In classical antiquity, the central tribe which emerged in the territory of Kosovo were Dardani, who formed an independent polity known as the Kingdom of Dardania in the 4th century BC. It was annexed by the Roman Empire by the 1st century BC, and for the next millennium, the territory remained part of the Byzantine Empire, whose rule was eroded by Slavic invasions beginning in the 6th–7th century AD. In the centuries thereafter, control of the area alternated between the Byzantines and the First Bulgarian Empire. By the 13th century, Kosovo became the core of the Serbian medieval state, and has also been the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church from the 14th century, when its status was upgraded to a patriarchate.[15][16] Ottoman expansion in the Balkans in the late 14th and 15th century led to the decline and fall of the Serbian Empire; the Battle of Kosovo of 1389 is considered to be one of the defining moments in Serbian medieval history. The Ottomans fully conquered the region after the Second Battle of Kosovo. The Ottoman Empire ruled the area for almost five centuries until 1912.

In the late 19th century, Kosovo was the center of the Albanian National Movement and where the Albanian revolt of 1910 and Albanian revolt of 1912 took place. Following their defeat in the Balkan Wars, the Ottomans ceded Kosovo to Serbia and Montenegro. Both countries joined Yugoslavia after World War I, and following a period of Yugoslav unitarianism in the Kingdom, the post-World War II Yugoslav constitution established the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within the Yugoslav constituent republic of Serbia. Tensions between Kosovo's Albanian and Serb communities simmered through the 20th century and occasionally erupted into major violence, culminating in the Kosovo War of 1998 and 1999, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Yugoslav army, and the establishment of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Ultimately, Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008,[14] and has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by 101 member states of the United Nations. Serbia does not officially recognise Kosovo as a sovereign state and continues to claim it as its constituent Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, although it accepts the governing authority of the Kosovo institutions as a part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement.[17]

Kosovo is a developing country, with an upper-middle-income economy. It has experienced solid economic growth over the last decade as measured by international financial institutions since the onset of the financial crisis of 2007–2008. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and has applied for membership in the Council of Europe, UNESCO, Interpol, and for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

  1. ^ "Israel's ties with Kosovo: What new opportunities await?". The Jerusalem Post. 1 February 2021. Archived from the original on 7 February 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  2. ^ "Municipal language compliance in Kosovo". OSCE Minsk Group. Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021. Turkish language is currently official in Prizren and Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša municipalities. In 2007 and 2008, the municipalities of Gjilan/Gnjilane, southern Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, Prishtinë/Priština and Vushtrri/Vučitrn also recognized Turkish as a language in official use.
  3. ^ "Kosovo Population 2019". World Population Review. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference factbook was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ "Water percentage in Kosovo (Facts about Kosovo; 2011 Agriculture Statistics)". Kosovo Agency of Statistics, KAS. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017.
  6. ^ "Population of Kosovo". 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  8. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)–Kosovo". World Bank. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  9. ^ "Kosovo Human Development Report 2016". United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 19 October 2016. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  10. ^ a b "Ligji Nr. 06/L-012 për Kryeqytetin e Republikës së Kosovës, Prishtinën" (in Albanian). Gazeta Zyrtare e Republikës së Kosovës. 6 June 2018. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  11. ^ "Foreign travel advice Kosovo". www.gov.uk. UK Government. Archived from the original on 26 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  12. ^ "Kosovo loses millions of euros from the use of the Serbian dinar". Kosova Press. 12 September 2020. Archived from the original on 26 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  13. ^ "Points of dispute between Kosovo and Serbia". France 24. 9 November 2018. Archived from the original on 26 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  14. ^ a b "Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo" (PDF). International Court of Justice (ICJ). 22 July 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  15. ^ Sharpe, M. E. (2003). Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe. p. 364. ISBN 9780765618337. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017.
  16. ^ RFE/RL Research Report: Weekly Analyses from the RFE/RL Research Institute, Том 3. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  17. ^ Gvosdev, Nikolas K. (24 April 2013). "Kosovo and Serbia Make a Deal". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.

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