Coordinates: 29°30′N 47°45′E / 29.500°N 47.750°E / 29.500; 47.750

State of Kuwait
دولة الكويت (Arabic)
Dawlat al-Kuwayt
Anthem: an-Nashīd al-Waṭani
National Anthem
Location of Kuwait (green)
Location of Kuwait (green)
CapitalKuwait City
Official languagesArabic[1]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy[3]
• Emir
Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Mishal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Ahmad Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah
LegislatureNational Assembly
• Independence from the Bani Khalid Emirate
23 January 1899
29 July 1913
• End of treaties with the United Kingdom
19 June 1961
14 May 1963
• Kuwait National Day
25 February 1961
• Kuwait Liberation Day
26 February 1991
• Total
17,818 km2 (6,880 sq mi) (152nd)
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
Neutral decrease 4,420,110[4] (127th)
• 2005 census
• Density
200.2/km2 (518.5/sq mi) (61st)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase$245.182  billion [6] (66th)
• Per capita
Increase $50,919[6] (29th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase$186.610  billion[6] (59th)
• Per capita
Increase$38,755[6] (31th)
HDI (2021)Increase 0.831[7]
very high · 50th
CurrencyKuwaiti dinar
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+965
ISO 3166 codeKW
Internet TLD.kw
  1. Nominal succession within the House of Sabah.
  2. Emirate

Kuwait (/kʊˈwt/ (listen);[8][9] Arabic: الكويت al-Kuwayt, Gulf Arabic pronunciation: [ɪl‿ɪkweːt] or [lɪkweːt]), formerly known as Grane/Qurain (Gulf Arabic: القرين li-Grēn (Standard Arabic al-Qurain)) and officially the State of Kuwait (Arabic: دولة الكويت Dawlat al-Kuwayt), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to the north and Saudi Arabia to the south.[10] Kuwait also shares maritime borders with Iran. Kuwait has a coastal length of approximately 500 km (311 mi).[11] Most of the country's population reside in the urban agglomeration of the capital city Kuwait City.[12] As of 2022, Kuwait has a population of 4.67 million people of which 1.85 million are Kuwaiti citizens while the remaining 2.8 million are foreign nationals from over 100 countries.

Historically, most of present-day Kuwait was part of ancient Mesopotamia.[13][14][15] Pre-oil Kuwait was a strategic trade port between Mesopotamia, Persia and India. Oil reserves were discovered in commercial quantities in 1938. In 1946, crude oil was exported for the first time.[16][17] From 1946 to 1982, the country underwent large-scale modernization, largely based on income from oil production. In the 1980s, Kuwait experienced a period of geopolitical instability and an economic crisis following the stock market crash. In 1990, after oil production disputes with neighbouring Iraq, Kuwait was invaded, and later annexed into one of Iraq's governorates by Iraq under Saddam Hussein.[18] The Iraqi occupation of Kuwait came to an end on February 26,1991 after military intervention by a military coalition led by the United States and various other countries.

Kuwait is an emirate. The Emir is the head of state and the Al Sabah is the ruling family which dominates the country's political system. Kuwait's official state religion is Islam. Kuwait is a developing country with a high-income economy, backed by the world's sixth largest oil reserves. The Kuwaiti dinar is the highest valued currency in the world.[19] Kuwait is the fifth richest country in the world by gross national income per capita.[20] In 2009, Kuwait had the highest Human Development Index in the Arab world.[21][22] Kuwait has the largest number of stateless people in the entire region.[23][24][25] Kuwait is a founding member of the GCC. Kuwait named the emir's son as the country's new prime minister on July 24, 2022 to replace caretaker premier Sheikh Sabah al-Khalid, who faced a combative parliament as head of cabinet in a feud hindering fiscal reform.

  1. ^ "Kuwait's Constitution of 1962, Reinstated in 1992" (PDF). Constitute Project. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Middle East ::KUWAIT". CIA The World Factbook. 26 May 2022.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference loc was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference PACI was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ "الإدارة المركزية للإحصاء - الإحصاءات و النشرات". www.csb.gov.kw.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database April 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  7. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  8. ^ "Kuwait – definition of Kuwait in English". Lexico. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  9. ^ "Definition of Kuwait by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  10. ^ "Kuwait". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 10 April 2015.
  11. ^ "Coastline - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov.
  12. ^ Nations, United. "The World's Cities in 2018. Data Booklet" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  13. ^ Sissakian, Varoujan K.; Adamo, Nasrat; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Mukhalad, Talal; Laue, Jan (January 2020). "Sea Level Changes in the Mesopotamian Plain and Limits of the Arabian Gulf: A Critical Review". Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. 10 (4): 88–110.
  14. ^ Louise Pryke (23 April 2018). "In ancient Mesopotamia, sex among the gods shook heaven and earth". The Conversation.
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference Meso was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ "Wise cities" in the Mediterranean? : challenges of urban sustainability. Woertz, Eckart, Ajl, Max. Barcelona. 2018. ISBN 978-84-92511-57-0. OCLC 1117436298.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ "Contributors". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 35 (2): 382–384. 2015. doi:10.1215/1089201x-3139815. ISSN 1089-201X.
  18. ^ "OPEC pressures Kuwait to moderate quota demand", New Straits Times, 7 June 1989
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference curr was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference usatoday was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ "HDI of Kuwait is highest in the Arab world". Brazil-Arab News Agency. 2009.
  22. ^ "Kuwait ranks top among Arab states in human development". Kuwait News Agency. 2009.
  23. ^ "The Gulf's Stateless People without Rights Decades after Independence". Human Rights First.
  24. ^ Cite error: The named reference new was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  25. ^ Cite error: The named reference hrw was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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