Flag of Lagos
Eko akete, Lasgidi[3][4]
Èkó ò ní bàjé o!
Lagos shown within the State of Lagos
Lagos shown within the State of Lagos
Lagos is located in Lagos
Location of Lagos in Nigeria
Lagos is located in Nigeria
Lagos (Nigeria)
Lagos is located in Africa
Lagos (Africa)
Lagos is located in North Atlantic
Lagos (North Atlantic)
Lagos is located in Earth
Lagos (Earth)
Coordinates: 6°27′18″N 3°23′03″E / 6.455027°N 3.384082°E / 6.455027; 3.384082Coordinates: 6°27′18″N 3°23′03″E / 6.455027°N 3.384082°E / 6.455027; 3.384082
Country Nigeria
LGA(s)[note 1]
Settled15th century
Founded byAwori subgroup of the Yoruba[5]
 • Governor of LagosBabajide Sanwo-Olu
 • Deputy GovernorFemi Hamzat
 • Supreme JudgeKazeem Alogba
 • Metropolis1,171.28 km2 (452.23 sq mi)
 • Land999.6 km2 (385.9 sq mi)
 • Water171.68 km2 (66.29 sq mi)
 • Urban
907 km2 (350 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,706.7 km2 (1,045.1 sq mi)
41 m (135 ft)
 (2006 census)[note 1]
 • Metropolis8,048,430
 • Estimate 
(2018 by LASG[6])
 • Rank1st
 • Density6,871/km2 (17,800/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Urban density14,469/km2 (37,470/sq mi)
 • Metro
21,000,000 (estimated)[6]
 • Metro density7,759/km2 (20,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1
Area code010[8]
  1. ^ Only Ikoyi-Obalande and Iru-Victoria Island LCDAs

Lagos (Nigerian English: /ˈlɡɒs/;[9] Yoruba: Èkó) is the most populous city in Africa with an estimated population of 15.9 million[citation needed] in 2015. The estimated population for Lagos city was more than 24 million in 2022; and around 30 million for the Lagos metropolitan area, including the suburban area reaching far into the neighbouring Ogun State, thus making Lagos the most populous urban area in Africa.[citation needed] Lagos was the national capital of Nigeria until December 1991 following the government's decision to move their capital to Abuja in the centre of the country. Lagos is a major African financial centre and is the economic hub of Lagos State and Nigeria at large. The city has been described as the cultural, financial, and entertainment capital of Africa, and is a significant influence on commerce, entertainment, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, and fashion. Lagos is also among the top ten of the world's fastest-growing cities and urban areas.[17][18] The megacity has the fourth-highest GDP in Africa[2][19] and houses one of the largest and busiest seaports on the continent.[20][21][22] The Lagos metropolitan area is a major educational and cultural centre in Sub Saharan Africa.[23] Due to the large urban population and port traffic volumes, Lagos is classified as a Medium-Port Megacity.[24]

Lagos initially emerged as a home to the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba of West Africa islands, which are contained in the present day Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos Island, Eti-Osa, Amuwo-Odofin and Apapa. The islands are separated by creeks, fringing the southwest mouth of Lagos Lagoon, while being protected from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier islands and long sand spits such as Bar Beach, which stretch up to 100 km (62 mi) east and west of the mouth. Due to rapid urbanisation, the city expanded to the west of the lagoon to include areas in the present day Lagos Mainland, Ajeromi-Ifelodun, and Surulere. This led to the classification of Lagos into two main areas: the Island, which was the original city of Lagos, and the Mainland, which it has since expanded into.[25] This city area was governed directly by the Federal Government through the Lagos City Council, until the creation of Lagos State in 1967, which led to the splitting of Lagos city into the present-day seven Local Government Areas (LGAs), and an addition of other towns (which now make up 13 LGAs) from the then Western Region to form the state.[26]

However, the state capital was later moved to Ikeja in 1976,[27] and the federal capital moved to Abuja in 1991. Even though Lagos is still widely referred to as a city, the present-day Lagos, also known as "Metropolitan Lagos", and officially as "Lagos Metropolitan Area"[28][29][30] is an urban agglomeration or conurbation,[31] consisting of 16 LGAs including Ikeja, the state capital of Lagos State.[2][32] This conurbation makes up 37% of Lagos State total land area, but houses about 85% of the state's total population.[2][26][33]

The exact population of Metropolitan Lagos is disputed.[34] In the 2006 federal census data, the conurbation had a population of about 8 million people.[35] However, the figure was disputed by the Lagos State Government, which later released its own population data, putting the population of Lagos Metropolitan Area at approximately 16 million.[note 1] Daily, the Lagos area is growing by some 3,000 people or around 1.1 million annually, so the true population figure of the greater Lagos area in 2022 is roughly 28 million (up from some 23.5 million in 2018). Lagos may therefore have overtaken Kinshasa as Africa's most populous city. As of 2015, unofficial figures put the population of "Greater Metropolitan Lagos", which includes Lagos and its surrounding metro area, extending as far as into Ogun State, at approximately 21 million.[1][26][36][37]

  1. ^ a b c "Metro Lagos (Nigeria): Local Government Areas". City Population. 21 March 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d "Lagos and Its Potentials for Economic Growth". 2 July 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  3. ^ "18th National Sports Festival: Lagos unveils Logo, mascot and website". Premium Times. Abuja, Nigeria. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  4. ^ "Eko 2012: Building Branding through Sports, Articles". ThisDay. Lagos, Nigeria. 22 August 2012. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference urban was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ a b Lagos Bureau of Statistics. "2019 Abstract of Local Government Statistics" (PDF). Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  7. ^ Demographia (January 2015). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (11th ed.). Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  8. ^ Williams, Lizzie (2008). Bradt Travel Guides (3rd ed.). Paperback. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-8416-2397-9. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  9. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
  10. ^ African Cities Driving the NEPAD Initiative. UN-HABITAT. 2006. p. 202. ISBN 978-9-211318159.
  11. ^ Hartley, John; Potts, Jason; Flew, Terry; Cunningham, Stuart; Keane, Michael; Banks, John (2012). Key Concepts in Creative Industries. SAGE. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-446-2028-90.
  12. ^ Helmut K Anheier; Yudhishthir Raj Isar (2012). Cultures and Globalization: Cities, Cultural Policy and Governance. SAGE. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-446-2585-07.
  13. ^ Cunningham, Stuart (2013). Hidden Innovation: Policy, Industry and the Creative Sector (Creative Economy and Innovation Culture Se Series). Univ. of Queensland Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-702-2509-89.
  14. ^ Benton-Short, Lisa; John Rennie Short (2013). Cities and Nature. Routledge Critical Introductions to Urbanism and the City. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-134252749.
  15. ^ Pinther, Kerstin; Förster, Larissa; Hanussek, Christian (2012). Afropolis: City Media Art. Jacana Media. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-431-4032-57.
  16. ^ Diop, Salif; Barusseau, Jean-Paul; Descamps, Cyr (2014). The Land/Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone of West and Central Africa Estuaries of the World. Springer. p. 66. ISBN 978-3-319-0638-81.
  17. ^ Sources:[10][11][12][13][14][15][16]
  18. ^ "The Most Populated Cities of the World. World Megacities - Nations Online Project". Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  19. ^ "These cities are the hubs of Africa's economic boom". Big Think. 4 October 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  20. ^ "Africa's biggest shipping ports". Businesstech. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  21. ^ Rajewski, Brian (1998). Africa, Volume 1 of Cities of the World: a compilation of current information on cultural, geographical, and political conditions in the countries and cities of six continents, based on the Department of State's "post reports". Gale Research International, Limited. ISBN 978-0-810-3769-22.
  22. ^ Lees, Loretta; Hyun Bang Shin; Ernesto López Morales (2015). Global Gentrifications: Uneven Development and Displacement. Policy Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-1-447-3134-89.
  23. ^ "Lagos | City, Population, & History | Britannica". Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  24. ^ Roberts, Toby; Williams, Ian; Preston, John (10 August 2020). "The Southampton system: a new universal standard approach for port-city classification". Maritime Policy & Management. London: Taylor & Francis Group. 48 (4): 530–542. doi:10.1080/03088839.2020.1802785. S2CID 225502755. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
  25. ^ "CASE STUDY OF LAGOS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  26. ^ a b c "Lagos State Information". National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 9 November 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  27. ^ "History Of Lagos". One Lagos Fiesta. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  28. ^ "A Flood-Free Lagos: The Regional Imperative". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  29. ^ Olukoju, Ayodeji (1996). "The Travails of Migrant and Wage Labour in the Lagos Metropolitan Area in the Inter-War Years". Labour History Review. Liverpool University Press. 61: 49–70. doi:10.3828/lhr.61.1.49. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  30. ^ "Lagos Metropolitan Area: Scope and scale of the shelter problem". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  31. ^ Caprio, Charles (6 March 2012). "Lagos is wonderful and charming conurbation of Nigeria to visit". Go Articles. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  32. ^ "Administrative Levels - Lagos State". Nigeria Congress. Archived from the original on 25 December 2005. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  33. ^ "Population - Lagos State". Lagos State Government. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  34. ^ "2022 World Population by Country". Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  35. ^ Cite error: The named reference Metropolitan_Lagos_population was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  36. ^ "Population". Lagos State Government. 2011. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  37. ^ Pacetti, M.; Passerini, G.; Brebbia, C.A.; Latini, G. (2012). The Sustainable City VII: Urban Regeneration and Sustainability. ISBN 9781845645786.

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