Mangrove forest

Mangrove forests, also called mangrove swamps, mangrove thickets or mangals, are productive wetlands that occur in coastal intertidal zones.[1][2] Mangrove forests grow mainly at tropical and subtropical latitudes because mangroves cannot withstand freezing temperatures. There are about 80 different species of mangroves, all of which grow in areas with low-oxygen soil, where slow-moving waters allow fine sediments to accumulate.[3]

Many mangrove forests can be recognised by their dense tangle of prop roots that make the trees appear to be standing on stilts above the water. This tangle of roots allows the trees to handle the daily rise and fall of tides, which means that most mangroves get flooded at least twice per day. The roots slow the movement of tidal waters, causing sediments to settle out of the water and build up the muddy bottom. Mangrove forests stabilise the coastline, reducing erosion from storm surges, currents, waves, and tides. The intricate root system of mangroves also makes these forests attractive to fish and other organisms seeking food and shelter from predators.[3]

Mangrove forests live at the interface between the land, the ocean, and the atmosphere, and are centres for the flow of energy and matter between these systems. They have attracted much research interest because of the various ecological functions of the mangrove ecosystems, including runoff and flood prevention, storage and recycling of nutrients and wastes, cultivation and energy conversion.[4] The forests are major blue carbon systems, storing considerable amounts of carbon in marine sediments, thus becoming important regulators of climate change.[5][6] Marine microorganisms are key parts of these mangrove ecosystems. However, much remains to be discovered about how mangrove microbiomes contribute to high ecosystem productivity and efficient cycling of elements.[7]

  1. ^ Luo, Ling; Gu, Ji-Dong (2018). "Nutrient limitation status in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem revealed by analysis of enzymatic stoichiometry and microbial abundance for sediment carbon cycling". International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 128: 3–10. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.04.023.
  2. ^ Tue, Nguyen Tai; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi; Quy, Tran Dang; Hamaoka, Hideki; Nhuan, Mai Trong; Omori, Koji (2012). "A cross-system analysis of sedimentary organic carbon in the mangrove ecosystems of Xuan Thuy National Park, Vietnam". Journal of Sea Research. 67 (1): 69–76. Bibcode:2012JSR....67...69T. doi:10.1016/j.seares.2011.10.006.
  3. ^ a b What is a mangrove forest? National Ocean Service, NOAA. Updated: 25 March 2021. Retrieved: 4 October 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ De Groot, Rudolf S. (1992). Functions of Nature: Evaluation of Nature in Environmental Planning, Management and Decision Making. ISBN 9789001355944.
  5. ^ Alongi, D. M.; Murdiyarso, D.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kauffman, J. B.; Hutahaean, A.; Crooks, S.; Lovelock, C. E.; Howard, J.; Herr, D.; Fortes, M.; Pidgeon, E.; Wagey, T. (2016). "Indonesia's blue carbon: A globally significant and vulnerable sink for seagrass and mangrove carbon". Wetlands Ecology and Management. 24: 3–13. doi:10.1007/s11273-015-9446-y. S2CID 4983675.
  6. ^ Qu, Wu; Gao, Boliang; Wu, Jie; Jin, Min; Wang, Jianxin; Zeng, Runying (2020). "High-throughput amplicon sequencing reveals the spatiotemporal effects, abiotic and biotic shaping factors for the microbial communities in tropical mangrove sediments in Sanya, China". doi:10.21203/ S2CID 234724143. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help) CC BY icon.svg Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  7. ^ Lin, Xiaolan; Hetharua, Buce; Lin, Lian; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling; He, Zhili; Tian, Yun (4 October 2018). "Mangrove Sediment Microbiome: Adaptive Microbial Assemblages and Their Routed Biogeochemical Processes in Yunxiao Mangrove National Nature Reserve, China". Microbial Ecology. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 78 (1): 57–69. doi:10.1007/s00248-018-1261-6. ISSN 0095-3628. PMID 30284602. S2CID 52917236.

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