|Mayoralty of Michael Bloomberg|
January 1, 2002 – December 31, 2013
|Election||2001, 2005, 2009|
Bloomberg was known as a political pragmatist and for a managerial style that reflected his experience in the private sector. Bloomberg chose to apply a statistical approach to city management, appointing city commissioners based on their expertise and granting them wide autonomy in their decision-making. Breaking with 190 years of tradition, Bloomberg implemented a "bullpen" open plan office, reminiscent of a Wall Street trading floor, in which dozens of aides and managerial staff are seated together in a large chamber. The design was intended to promote accountability and accessibility. At the end of Bloomberg's three terms, the New York Times said, "New York is once again a thriving, appealing city where [...] the crime rate is down, the transportation system is more efficient, the environment is cleaner."