Mongolia

Mongolia
  • ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (Mongolian)
  • Монгол Улс (Mongolian)
Anthem: Монгол улсын төрийн дуулал
Mongol ulsyn töriin duulal
"National Anthem of Mongolia"
State seal:
Capital
and largest city
Ulaanbaatar[a]
48°N 106°E / 48°N 106°E / 48; 106
Official languagesMongolian
Official scripts
Ethnic groups
(2020[2])
Religion
(2020[2])
Demonym(s)Mongolian, Mongol
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[3]
• President
Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh
Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene
Gombojavyn Zandanshatar
LegislatureState Great Khural
Formation
209 BC
1206
• Completion of Qing dynasty conquest
1691
29 December 1911
• Mongolian People's Republic established
26 November 1924
12 February 1992
Area
• Total
1,564,116 km2 (603,909 sq mi) (18th)
• Water (%)
0.67[4]
Population
• 2020 estimate
3,227,863[5] (134th)
• Density
2.07/km2 (5.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $52.989 billion[6] (124th)
• Per capita
Increase $15,087[6] (103rd)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $18.782 billion[6] (136rd)
• Per capita
Increase $5,348[6] (115th)
Gini (2018)32.7[7]
medium
HDI (2022)Increase 0.741[8]
high (96th)
CurrencyTögrög (MNT)
Time zoneUTC+7/+8[9]
Date formatyyyy.mm.dd (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+976
ISO 3166 codeMN
Internet TLD.mn, .мон

Mongolia[b] is a landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south. It covers an area of 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 square miles), with a population of just 3.3 million, making it the world's most sparsely populated sovereign state. Mongolia is the world's largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea, and much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to roughly half of the country's population.

The territory of modern-day Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the First Turkic Khaganate, the Second Turkic Khaganate, the Uyghur Khaganate and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China proper and established the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism spread to Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century. By the early 20th century, almost one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks.[10][11] After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, and achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country became a satellite state of the Soviet Union. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state.[12] After the anti-communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990. This led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.

Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture remains integral. Buddhism is the majority religion (51.7%), with the nonreligious being the second-largest group (40.6%). Islam is the third-largest religious identification (3.2%), concentrated among ethnic Kazakhs. The vast majority of citizens are ethnic Mongols, with roughly 5% of the population being Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other ethnic minorities, who are especially concentrated in the western regions. Mongolia is a member of the United Nations, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, G77, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Non-Aligned Movement and a NATO global partner. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups.[4]


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  1. ^ "Official Documents to be in Mongolian Script". UB Post. 21 June 2011. Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  2. ^ a b "Хун ам, орон сууцны 2020 оны улсын ээлжит тооллогы нэгдсэн дун" (PDF) (in Mongolian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  3. ^ Odonkhuu, Munkhsaikhan (February 12, 2016). "Mongolia: A Vain Constitutional Attempt to Consolidate Parliamentary Democracy". ConstitutionNet. International IDEA. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016. Mongolia is sometimes described as a semi-presidential system because, while the prime minister and cabinet are collectively responsible to the SGKh, the president is popularly elected, and his/her powers are much broader than the conventional powers of heads of state in parliamentary systems.
  4. ^ a b "Mongolia". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on January 9, 2021. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
  5. ^ "Mongolia". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 24 September 2022. (Archived 2022 edition.)
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Mongolia)". International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  7. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Mongolia". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2023/24" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 13 March 2024. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2024. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  9. ^ "Mongolia Standard Time is GMT (UTC) +8, some areas of Mongolia use GMT (UTC) +7". Time Temperature.com. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2007.
  10. ^ Michael Jerryson, Mongolian Buddhism: The Rise and Fall of the Sangha, (Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2007), 89.
  11. ^ "Mongolia – Religion". Michigan State University. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
  12. ^ Sik, Ko Swan (1990). Nationality and International Law in Asian Perspective. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 39. ISBN 9780792308768. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2013.

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