Monsoon of South Asia

A visualisation of the South Asian Monsoon based on the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) 30+ year quasi-global rainfall dataset, analysed and visualised using Google Earth Engine.
Annual average monsoon precipitation in India over 110 years. The long-term average has been 899 millimeters of precipitation.[1] However, the monsoon varies over the Indian subcontinent within a ±20% range. Rains that exceed 10% typically lead to major floods, while a 10% shortfall is a significant drought.[2]

The Monsoon of South Asia is among several geographically distributed global monsoons. It affects the Indian subcontinent, where it is one of the oldest and most anticipated weather phenomena and an economically important pattern every year from June through September, but it is only partly understood and notoriously difficult to predict. Several theories have been proposed to explain the origin, process, strength, variability, distribution, and general vagaries of the monsoon, but understanding and predictability are still evolving.

The unique geographical features of the Indian subcontinent, along with associated atmospheric, oceanic, and geographical factors, influence the behavior of the monsoon. Because of its effect on agriculture, on flora and fauna, and on the climates of nations such as Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka – among other economic, social, and environmental effects – the monsoon is one of the most anticipated, tracked,[3] and studied weather phenomena in the region. It has a significant effect on the overall well-being of residents and has even been dubbed the "real finance minister of India".[4][5]

  1. ^ India Meteorological Department, Monsoon data 1901-2010 Archived 24 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India
  2. ^ Pal et al., Districtwise Drought Climatology Of The Southwest Monsoon Season over India Based on Standardized Precipitation Index Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine National Climate Centre, Research Report No: 2/2010, India Meteorological Department Pune, Govt of India
  3. ^ Alexander Frater (1 May 2005). Chasing the Monsoon. Picador. ISBN 978-0-330-43313-6. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  4. ^ News Service, Indo-Asian (31 May 2010). "India cheers as monsoon arrives; hopes of better farm output raised". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  5. ^ "India cheers as monsoon arrives in Kerala". Indo-Asian News Service. 1 June 2010. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2011.

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